Essential Oil Chemistry Reference

Terpenes:

  • End with "ene".
  • produced mostly by conifers, but also by other plants, and some insects such as termites.
  • A class of hydrocarbons. the difference between them and terpenoids is simply that terpenoids have other functional groups attached. 
  • They are a mojor component of resin. 
  • Terpenes are biosynthetic building blocks within nearly every living creature.
  • A solvent. Can dissolve mucous in the lungs simply by inhalation. 

Bisabolene - Black pepper, Carrot seeds, Fir, Lemon

Camphene - Black pepper, camphor and Borneone, Citronella, Cypress, Eucalyptus globulus, Fennel, Fir, Frankincence, Ginger, Hyssop, Lavandin, Lemon, Myrtle, Neroli, Nutmeg, Petitgrain, pine, Rosemary.

Camphrene - Juniper

Carene - Galbanum

Cymene - Cinnamon, Coriander, Cumin, thyme, Tea tree

Dipentine - Cajeput, Camphor and Borneone, Cinnamon, Citronella, Coriander, Cumin, Fennel, Fir, Frankincence, LavandinLemon, Myrrh, Myrtle, Nutmeg, Palmorosa, Pine, Rosewood, Verbena.

Fenchene - Eucalyptus globulus

Heerabolene - Myrrh

Limonene (all citrus oils 90%+) - Angelica, Bay, Black pepper, Cajeput, Cardamom, Carrot seeds, Celery, Caraway, Citronella, Dill, Fennel, Galbanum, Ginger, Lavandin, Lavender, Lemon, Lime, Litsea, Cubeba, Lemongrass, Myrrh, Neroli, Niaouli, Palmarosa, Petitgrain, Peppermint, Spearmint, Verbena, Yarrow.

Myrcene (mercene) - Bay, Black pepper, Galbanum, Juniper, Lemongrass, Rose Spearmint, Verbena.

Ocimene - Lavandin, Tarragon

P. Menthadienes - Therebentine

Phellandrene - Angelica, Bay, Black Pepper, Cinnamon, Coriander, Cumin, Dill, Eucalyptus globulus, Fennel, Fir, Frankincence, Ginger, Lemon, Peppermint, Pine, Sage, Spearmint, Terragon

Pinene - Angelica, Basil, Bay, Black pepper, Cajeput, Carrot seeds, Cinnamon, Cloves, Coriander, Cumin, Cypress, Eucalyptus globulus, Fir, Frankincence, Galbanum, Grapefruit, Hyssop, Helichrysum, Lavender, Lemon, Lime, Marjoram, Myrrh, Myrtle, Niaouli, Nutmeg, Oregano, parsley, Pine, Rosemary, Spearmint.

Alpha pinene - Juniper, Pine

Piperene - black pepper

Sabinene - Black Pepper, Cardamom, geranium, Juniper, Lime, Listea, cubeba, Marjoram

Selenine - Celery

Sylvestrene - Cypress, Pine

Terpenine - Cardamom, Coriander, Dill, Lavandin, Marjoram, Thyme, tea tree

Terpinolene - Coriander, Galbanum, lime

Vetivene - Vetiver

 

Sesqui-Terpenes:

  • End with "Ene"

Cadinene - Cedarwood, frankincence, Galbanum, Hyssop, Juniper, Lemon, Litsea, Cubeba, Myrrh, Patchouli, Pine, Ylang Ylang.

Caryophyllene [Sedative, anti-carcinogenic] - Black pepper Clary sage, Cloves (10%), lavandin, Lavender, Marjoram, Melissa, Rosemary, Spearmint, thyme, Tea tree, Yarrow, Ylang Ylang.

Cedrene - Cedar, Juniper

Chamazulene (or azulene)  [Anti-inflammatory] - All chamomiles (in varying percentages), tansy, Yarrow.

Santalene - Sandalwood

 

Alcohols:

  • End with "Ol".
  • Anti-infectious
  • Can be used neat
  • Uplifting fragrances

Bisabolol - German chamomile

Borneol (similar to camphor) - Angelica, Camphor and borneo, Cardamom, Coriander, Citronella, Galbanum, Ginger, Hyssop, Juniper, Lavender, Marjoram, Pine, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Verbena, Yarrow.

Carotol - Carrot seed

Cedrol - Cedarwood

Citronellol - Citronella, geranium, Melissa, Palmorosa, Rose

Farnesol - Chamomile, Jasmine, Lemongrass, Palmorosa, Rose, Ylang Ylang.

Geraniol - Bay, Citronella, Coriander, Geranium, Grapefruit, Helichrysum, Jasmine, Lavender, Litsea Cubeba, Lemongrass, Melissa, Myrtle, Neroli, Nutmeg, Palmorosa, Petitgrain, Rose, Rosewood, Verbena, Ylang Ylang.

Guaiol - Galbanum

Lavendulol - Lavendin, Lavender, 

Linalol - Angelica, Basil, Bay, Bergamont, Cinnamon, Clary sage, Coriander, Galbanum, Geranium, Grapefruit, Helichrysum, Hyssop, Lavandin, Lavender, Lemon, Lime, Litsea cubeba, Melissa, Myrtle, Neroli, Nutmeg, Peppermint, Petitgrain, Rosewood,(90%), Spike, Thyme (lemon and sweet), Verbena, Ylang Ylang.

Menthol - Peppermint

Myrtenol - geranium, Myrtle 

Nerol (includes nerolidol) - Bergamont, Citronella, Helichrysum, Jasmine, Lemongrass, Myrtle, Neroli, Orange, Petitgrain, Rose, Rosewood, Verbena

Olibanol - Frankincence

Ormenol - Chamomile mixta

Patchoulol - Patchouli

Sabinol - Cypress

Salviol - Sage

Santalol - Sandalwood

Terpineol - Bay, Bergamont, Cajeput, Cardamom, Coriander, Eucalyptus globulus, Galbanum, Geranium, Jasmine, Lavandin, Lavender, Lime, Marjoram, Niaouli, Nutmeg, Petitgrain, Rosewood

Terpinen.4.ol (or terpineol 4) - Juniper, Marjoram, tea tree

terpinen.5.ol - Juniper

Alpha-terpineol - Cajeput, Cardamom, Eucalyptus radiata, Niaouli, tea tree

Vetivol - Vetiver

Ylangol - Ylang Ylang

 

Phenols:

  • End with "Ol".
  • Complex alcohols.
  • Extremely Strong! Use CAUTION.
  • Strongest anti-infectious agents
  • Too harsh to use neat on skin
  • Immune stimulants (but use with CAUTION due to liver toxicity).

Carvacrol - Horsemint (monarda fistulosa), Peppermint, Oregano, Savory, thyme

Thymol - Horsemint, Oregano, Red thyme

 

Oxides:

  • End with "Ole".
  • Affects Bronchioles. Especially cineol, working to stimulate active mucous glands in the lungs.

Ascaridole - Chenapodium (goosefoot family).

Eucalyptole (cineol) - Basil, Bay, Cajeput, Clary sage, Coriander, Eucalyptus,globulus (70%), Ginger, Laurel, Lavender, Lavandin, Litsea cubeba, Myrtle, Niaouli, Rosemary, Rosewood, Sage, Spearmint, Tea tree, Yarrow,

Indole (nitrogenous) - Neroli

Linalol Oxide - Hyssop

Limonene Cineole - Cardamom

 

Aldehydes:

  • End with "Al".
  • Calming, Soothing, Sedative.
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Can be antiseptic

Anisic Aldehyde - Aniseed, Fennel

Benzaldehyde - Cajeput, Cinnamon, Patchouli

Citral - Citronella, Geranium, Ginger, Grapefruit, Lemon, Lime, Lemongrass, Lemon Verbena, Lemon thyme, Litsea cubeba, Melissa, Petitgrain

Citronellal - Citronella, eucalyptus,citriadora, Lemon, Lemongrass, Litsea cubeba, Melissa

Cinnamic aldehyde - Cinnamon (80-95%), Myrrh, Patchouli

Cuminic Aldehyde - Caraway, Cumin, German Chamomile, Fennel, Myrrh, Rosemary

Furfurol - Caraway, Cinnamon, Cloves, Cypress, Sandalwood, Vetivert, 

Geranial - Geranium

Myrtenal - Myrtle

Neral - Neroli

 

Ketones:

  • End with "One".
  • Great on the skin (cytophylactic).
  • Great wound healer (vulnerary).
  • Strong mucolytic and lipolytic.
  • CAUTION: Many ketones must be avoided altogether or used sparingly during early pregnancy, with children, or for any internal use.

Asarone - Carrot seed

Atlantone 7 - Cedarwood

Borneone - Basil

Camphor(includes camphenone) - Basil, Camphor, Hyssop, Lavandin, Marjoram, Rosemary, Rosemary, Sage, Spike

Carvone (pino-camphone) - Caraway, Dill, Galbanum, Hyssop, Peppermint, Spearmint(55%)

D.Fenchone - Fennel (20%)

Irone - Violets

Jasmone - Jasmine, Neroli, Peppermint

Lactone - Angelica, Bergamont, Celery, Lime,(bergaptene), lovage

Menthone - Geranium

Piperitone - Eucalyptus, peppermint

Pulegone - Pennyroyal, Peppermint

Thujone - Hyssop, Mugwort, Sage, Tansy, Thuja, Wormwood (artemesia).

Verbenone - Rosemary

Vetivone - Vetiver

Zingiberone - Ginger

 

Esters:

  • End with "Ate".
  • Affect central nervous system.
  • Anti-spasmodic. 
  • Sedative.
  • Can be antifungal
  • Roman Chamomile (nobilis) is king of this class.

Allyl Isotheocyanate - Mustard

Benzyl Acetate - Jasmine, Ylang Ylang

Bornyl Acetate - Fir, Pinus, Rosemary (2-6%)

Geranyl Acetate - Lavender, Melissa, Palmorosa, Petitgrain

Lavandulyl Acetate - Lavender

Linalyl Acetate - Bergamont (35-45%), Clary sage, Jasmine, Lavender (35%), Lavandin, Lime, Litsea cubeba, Neroli, Petitgrain

Methyl Anthranilate - Jasmine, Neroli, Orange

Methyl Salicylate - Birch, Cloves, Wintergreen

Menthyl Acetate - Peppermint

Neryl Acetate - Helichrysum, Neroli

Terpenyl Acetate - Cypress, Fir, Pine

 

Phenolic Esthers:

  • End with "Ol".
  • Similar to esters, but stronger analgesics.
  • Severe skin reactions.

Anethol - Aniseed, Basil, Fennel (50-60%)

Apiol [Abortivacient] - Parsley

Charvicol - Bay

Methyl Chavicol - Aniseed, basil, Fennel, Tarragon

Eugenol - Basil, Bay, Black pepper, Cinnamon leaf, Cloves (85%), Dill, Geranium, Jasmine, Myrrh, Nutmeg, Patchouli, Rose, Ylang Ylang.

Myristicin [Hallucinogenic] - Black pepper, Dill, Nutmeg, Parsley.

Safrol - Black pepper, Camphor, Cinnamon, Nutmeg, Sassafras (80%), Star anise, Ylang Ylang.