inflammatory conditions

Endometriosis

Endometriosis Overview:

Endometriosis is characterised by the growth of endometrial tissue growing outside the uterine cavity. It can appear on the ovaries or elswhere within the pelvic cavity. Due to the endometrial tissues sensitivity to female hormones, symptoms can vary at differing points in the menstrual cycle as the tissue responds to the estrogen levels.

The most common symptom of endometriosis is pelvic pain and inflammation as a result of the "shedding" of endometrial tissue during menstruation, which then pools outside of the uterine cavity, causing irritation and inflamamtion. Adhesion is also common and can cause organ dislocation and significant pain irrelevant of menstrual cycle.

  • 5% of women affected, not all symptomatic
  • 20-40% of infertile women affected
  • Up to 50% of women with Chronic pelvic pain affected
 

Aetiology:

+ 1. Retrograde flow

This theory suggests that backwards flow of menstrual flow implants endometrial tissue outside the uterus. Since a large number of women without endometriosis also have this backwards flow, it's suggested that the immune system plays a key role with this pathophysiology.

In healthy women, the immune system is able to identify and prevent the growth of endometrial tissues outside the uterus. People with defective immune funciton may not have the capacity for preventing the growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus.

+ 2. Migration of endometrial tissue through fallopian tissue

still compiling research.

+ 3. Migration of endometrial tissue through lymphatic tissue

Still compiling research.

 

Risk Factors:

  • 2-3x risk with family history
  • Early menarche
  • Long and heavy periods
  • Familial link – mother or sister with it increases the likelihood by 7%
  • Strenuous physical activity while menstruating increases the risk but regular
  • exercise throughout the month seems to decrease the risk
  • Full-term pregnancies – the risk lessens with each pregnancy
  • Using an IUD
  • Caffeine
  • Increased consumption of alcohol
  • Sex during menstruation
 

Stages Of Endometriosis:

Stage Definition
0 Minimal disease, no haemorrhage
1 Minimal disease, haemorrhage, no adhesion
2 Progression with haemorrhage, some adhesion
3 Progression to organ destruction, dense adhesions
4 Total loss of reproductive function, extensive organ damage, dense adhesions, frozen pelvis
 

Symptoms:

Severe dysmenorrhoea

Chronic pelvic pain

Dysparenunia

Infertility

Significant lethargy (especially before menses)

Premenstrual spotting

Heavy menstrual bleeding

Pain with bowel motion

Painful abdominal bloating

Urinary urgency

Pain on urination

Increased incidence of infection around menses

Predisposition to autoimmune disorders

No pain symptoms (Uncommon)

Prolonged menstruation

 

Diagnostic Considerations:

Diagniostic criteria require laparoscopy and peritoneal biopsy of endometriotic tissue lesions or nodules outside the uterus. 

 

Therapeutic Aims:

1. Modulate Oestrogen / Balance Hormones

  • Phytoestrogens (Hops, Soy)
  • Hepatics (Milk Thistle, Schisandra chinensis, Curcuma longa, Cynara scolymus)
  • Aromatase inhibitors (Paeonia lactiflora, Licorice)
  • Progesteronergics (Chaste Tree, Alchemilla vulgaris, Paeonia lactiflora, Alchemilla vulgaris)
  • Lymphatics (Calendula officinalis, Phytolacca decandra, Galium aparine)

2. Reduce Bleeding

  • Antihemorrhagics (Panax notoginseng, Alchemilla vulgaris, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Trillium erectum)
  • Flavonoids (Yarrow, Capsella bursa-pastoris)
  • PGE Inhibitors (Tanacetum parthenium, Zingiber officinalis)
  • Nutrients (Iron)

3. Minimise Inflammation, Scarring, And Adhesions

  • Venous Decongestants (Calendula, Iris versicolor, Thuja occidentalis, Trifolium pratense, Viola odorata, Hammelis virginiana, Aesculus hippocastanum, Ruscus aculeatus)
  • Circulatory Tonics (Yarrow, Aesculus hippocastanum, Ginkgo biloba)
  • Antinflammatories (Ginger, Tanacetum vulgare, Curcuma longa, Bupleurum falcatum, Viburnum opulus, Scutellaria baicalensis, Zingiber officinalis)

4. Alleviate Pain

  • PGE Inhibitors (Tanacetum parthenium, Zingiber officinalis)
  • Uterine Antispasmodics (Viburnum opulus, Dioscorea viollosa, Asparagus racemosa, Rubus ideaus)
  • Uterine Tonics (Angelica sinensis, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Rubus ideaus, Aletris fainosa, Asparagus racemosus)
  • Analgesics (Piscidia erythaeum, Corydalis ambigua, Zingiber officinalis)

5. Enhance The Immune Response

(Cell mediated Immunity)

  • Immunomodulators (Cat's Claw, Hemidesmus indicus, Astragalus membranaceus, Rehmannia glutinosa, Echinaceae spp.)
  • Adaptogens (Rehmannia glutinosa, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Eleutherococus senticosus, Withania somnifera, Rhodiola rosea)
 

Differential Diagnosis:

  • Chronic pelvic inflammation
  • Fibroids
  • Uterine cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
 

Cautions:

None noted.

 

Herbs For Endometriosis:

  • vitex
 

Nutrients For Endometriosis:

  • Fiber
  • Omega 3 Fatty acids
  • Bitter foods
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium
  • Iron
 

Author:

Justin Cooke

The Sunlight Experiment

Updated: July 2018


Recent Blog Posts:

References:

  1. Murray, M. T., & Pizzorno, J. (2012). The Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine Third Edition. Simon and Schuster.
  2.  

Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis Overview:

Osteoarthritis is a low grade inflammatory condition that leads to a loss of cartilage and synovial fluid in the joint.

 

Aetiology:

Can be caused by repetitive shock or exercise such as with normal wear and tear of age, or from athletics. 

 

Symptoms:

Aching pain in the joints

Loss of function

Onset is gradual (months to years)

Abnormal gait (if severe in hips or knees)

Typical distribution deformity

Symptom

Symptom

 

Therapeutic Aims:

1. Increase blood circulation into the affected area

Circulatory stimulants (Zingiber officinale)

  • ...

2. Alleviate symptoms of pain/inflammation management

Analgesics (Piscidia erythrina, Corydalis)

  • Sedatives (Piper methysticum, Valeriana officinalis, Zizyphus spinosa)
  • Antinflammatories (Salix alba, Guaiacum officinalis, Boswellia serrata, Harpagophytum procumbens, Dioscorea villosa)
  • Rubefacients

3. Maintain joint function, prevent further degeneration of joints, and enhance the repair process

Supplying carbohydrate molecules for proteoglycan synthesis and cartilage reconstruction (L-Glucosamine)

  • Remineralisation of calcified cartilage and bone junction (Urtica dioica)

4. Encourage detoxification and enhance efficiency of other organs of elimination

Alteratives (Urtica dioica)

  • Diuretics (Apium graveolens)
  • Bitters (Achillea millefolium, Gentiana lutea, Taraxicum officinale)
  • Hepatics (Silybum marianum, Cynara scolymus)
 

Diagnostic Considerations:

  • Nothing noteable on blood testing
  • Imaging
    • Xray
      • joint space narrowing
      • subchondral sclerosis
      • subchondral cysts
 

Differential Diagnosis:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Mechanical damage/trauma
 

Herbs For Osteoarthritis

 

Author:

Justin Cooke

The Sunlight Experiment

Updated: November 2017


References:

  1. ...

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis Overview:

Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory and autoimmune condition affecting the joints. it is much more frequent in females than males (3:1), and has genetic, hormonal, viral, and environmental risk factors.

 

Aetiology:

Onset tends to be gradual, and will affect the smaller joints first in the hands, wrists, and feet (compared to osteoarthritis).

  • Genetic factors
  • Hormonal factors
  • Environmental factors
  • Viral factors
Screenshot 2018-03-09 14.41.08.png
 

Symptoms:

Gradually increasing pain in the hands, wrist and feet

Most painful in the morning

Nodules around the joints

Joint swelling (usually symetrical)

Skin changes

Deformity of the joint

Warmth of affected area

 

Systemic Effects:

Rheumatoid granulomas near affected joints

Systemic vasculitis

Skin ulcers

Scleritis (eyes)

Pericarditis

Heart valve dysfunctions

Kidney infarction

Lymphadenopathy

Thrombosis

 

Diagnostic Considerations

  • Rheumatoid factor (RF)
  • Antinuclear antibodies (ANA)
  • C-reactive protein (CRP)
  • Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
  • Anti-DNA antibodies
  • IgA, IgM, IgG
  • Anticyclic-citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP)
  • Cardiolipin autoantibodies
  • Antiscleroderma antibodies (anti-SCL-70)
  • Anti-Sjogren’s syndrome A (anti-SSA)
 

Therapeutic Aims:

1. Alleviate the symptoms of inflammation and pain

...

  • ...

2. Repair and normalise gut function

...

  • ...
  • ...

3. Improve stress adaptation

insert

  • Nervines
  • Adaptogens

4. Support primary immunity

...

  • ...
  • ...

5. Reduce allergenic load

...

  • ...
 

Differential Diagnosis:

  • Osteoarthritis
 

Herbs For Rheumatoid Arthritis:

  • Apium graveolens
  • Harpagophytum procumbens
  • Bupleurum falcatum
  • Echinacea spp.
  • Eschscholzia californica
  • Guaiacum officinale
  • Hemidesmus indicus
  • Zanthoxylum clava-herculis
  • Salix spp.
  • Panax ginseng
  • Valeriana officinalis
  • Iris versicolor
  • Dioscorea villosa
  • Smilax spp
  • Withania somnifera
  • Centella asiatica
  • Acetaea racemosa
  • Corydalis ambigua
  • Phytolacca decandra
 

Nutritional Considerations For Rheumatoid Arthritis:

  • Se, Zn
  • Vitamin A, C, D, E
  • EFAs
  • Manganese
  • Bromelain, Quercetin
  • Bs
  • Digestive enzymes
  • Glucosamine, Chondroitin, Green-Lipped Mussel
 

Dietary Considerations For Rheumatoid Arthritis:

  • Avoid allergenic foods – inc. lectins
  • High flavonoids
  • Avoid salicylates
  • Avoid sugar, caffeine, OH, red meat, SFA, trans fat, processed foods, chemical additives
  • EFAs
  • Vegetarian sources of protein
 

Author:

Justin Cooke

The Sunlight Experiment

Updated: June 2018


References:

  1. ...

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

COPD Overview:

COPD is an umbrella term for disorders characterised by a limitation in airflow into the lungs due to an inflammatory response. This includes emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and chronic asthma.

Although some cases are reversible, many cases are the result of long term inflammation and damage to the epithelial tissue in the lungs, resulting in fibrosis, and irreversible damage to the respiratory lining.

 

Aetiology:

Generally caused by chronic exposure to an airborn irritant such as smoke or air pollution. This leads to inflammation in the airway and alveoli of the lungs. This is thought to be mediated by an increase in protease activity and a decrease in antiprotease activity (esp α1 -antitrypsin) from the neutrophils in the lungs. Neuropeptides and reduced levels of vascular endothelial growth factor may also contribute to apoptotic destruction of lung parenchyma. Over many years, this can lead to damage and breakdown of the lung tissue.

In chronic bronchitis, this damage involves a hypersecretion of mucus into the bronchial passage, which comes with an increased risk and frequency of infection.

In emphysema, elastin breaks down, resulting in damage to the alveolar septa and a loss of elastic recoil of the bronchial walls.

In both conditions, the end result is a reduction in epithelial tissue, reduced gas exchange, and trapped air in the lungs.

In about 30% of COPD patients, colonisation of Haemophilus influenzae is also found.

+ Emphysema

  • Enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles.
  • Caused by a destruction of the alveolar walls without fibrosis.
  • Eventually there is a loss of elastic recoil and lung hyperinflation
  • Airway resistance increases, as does the work of breathing, resulting in hypoxia and hypercapnoea.

+ Chronic Bronchitis

  • Productive cough most days, for 3 consecutive months, for at least 2 years.
  • Mucus gland hypertrophy in the bronchial tree
  • Increased goblet cells in the small airways (metaplasia)
  • Decreased number of ciliated cells
  • Hypersecretion of mucosa & lumen occlusion by mucus plugging
  • Mononuclear inflammatory processes
  • Focal squamous metaplasia
  • Smooth muscle hyperplasia
  • Fibrosis in the brochioles and resulting distortion
  • Alveolar hypoxia can lead to pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary hypertension, resulting in less blood going to the left side of the heart, lowered vascular output, lowered circulatory volume, activation of RAAS, and fluid retention.

Learn more about bronchitis.

Screenshot 2018-04-25 12.26.34.png
Screenshot 2018-04-25 12.38.47.png
 

Symptoms:

Shortness of breath

Wheezing

Tightness in the chest

Excessive mucus in the lungs

Chronic cough

Cyanosis of the lips or fingernail beds

Frequent respiratory infection

Fatigue

Swelling of the ankles and feet

 

Diagnostic Considerations

  • Pink puffer and blue bloater
  • Increased respiratory rate
  • Pitting edema in lower limbs
  • Loss of cardiac dullness on percussion
  • Genetic markers:
    • α1 -antitrypsin
    • 30 other genetic variants identified

Emphysema vs Chronic Bronchitis

Diagnostic Test Emphysema Chronic Bronchitis
Overall Appearance "Pink Puffer" "Blue Bloater"
Characteristic Findings Barrel Chest Jugular Venous Distention (JVD)
Respiratory Rate Increased Increased
Palpation Pitting Edema Pitting Edema
Auscultation Wheezing? Wheezing?
FVC INSERT INSERT
FVC1 <80% predicted value <80% predicted value
Chest X-Ray Hyperexpansion, pulmonary hypertension, Bullae Hyperexpansion, pulmonary hypertension
alpha-1-antitrypsin INSERT INSERT
Arterial Blood Gases INSERT INSERT
Screenshot 2018-04-24 17.27.29.png
Screenshot 2018-04-25 12.39.51.png
 

Therapeutic Aims:

1. Improve Gas Exchange

...

  • Bronchodilators(Grindelia camporum, Adhatoda vasica, Drosera rotundifolia, Euphorbia spp, Coleus forskohlii, Glycyrrhiza glabra Magnesium)
  • Anticatarrhal(Solidago vigaurea, Hydrastis canadensis, Euphorbia hirta, Euphrasia officinalis, Plantago lanceolata, Sambucus nigra, Verbascum thaspus)
  • Mucus Membrane Trophorestoratives(Hydrastis candensis, Centella asiatica)
  • Circulatory Stimulants(Armoracia rusticana, Myrica cerifera, Sambucus nigra)

2. Eliminate Infection

(If necessary)

  • Antimicrobials(Thymus vulgaris, Allium sativum, Echinacea spp.)
  • Immunomodulators(Ganoderma lucidum, Astragalus membranaceus, Eleutherococcus senticosus)
  • action(herbs)

3. Reduce Inflammation & Allergic Response

...

  • Antinflammatories(Glycyrrhiza glabra, Verbascum thapsus, Allium cepa, Plantago spp, Boswellia serrata, Curcuma longa, Zingiber off, Camellia sinensis, Rehmannia glutinosa)
  • Antioxidants(herbs)
  • Respiratory Demulcents(Chrondus crispus, Plantago lanceolata, Verbascum thaspus, Glycyrrhiza glabra)
  • Anti-Asthmatics(Drosera rotundiflora, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia adhatoda)
  • Anti-Allergy(Albizia lebbeck, Scutellaria baicalensis )

4. Address Symptoms

(Such as cough, catarrh, fever)

  • Antitussives(Prunus seritona, Passiflora incarnata)
  • Respiratory Antispasmodics(Asclepias tuberosa, Drosera rotundifolia, Marrubium vulgare, Inula helenium, Euphorbia hirta, Prunus seritona, Thymus vulgaris, Justicia adhatoda, Hyssopus officinalis, Coleus forshkolii)
  • Diaphoretics(Archillea millefolium, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Allium sativum, Armoracia rusticana, Sambucus nigra, Tilia cordata)
  • Mucolytics(Allium Sativum, Amoracia rusticana, Pimpinella anisum, Cinnamomum cassia, Zingiber officinalis, Angelica archangelica)
  • Relaxing Expectorants(Asclepias tuberosa, Marrubium vulgare, Viola odorata, Althaea off, Tussilago farfara, Drosera rotundifolia, Foeniculum vulgare, Plantago spp, Hyssopus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Verbascum thapsus)
  • Stimulating Expectorants(Inula helenium, Polygala senega, P. tenuifolia, Lobelia inflata (Sched), Cephaelis ipecacuanha, Glycyrhizza glabra, Euphorbia hirta, Marrubium vulgare, Justicia adhatoda)

5. Address Complicating Factors

(Hayfever, leaky gut, autoimmunity)

  • Anti-Allergy(Albizia lebbeck, Scutellaria baicalensis )
  • action(herbs)
  • action(herbs)
 

Diagnostic Considerations:

  • Chest Xray
  • Vital signs
  • Chest auscultation
  • Blood testing:
    • Arterial blood glad (glad?... wtf?)
    • Full blood count
 

Differential Diagnosis:

  • Bronchiectasis
  • Untreated chronic asthma
  • Heart failure
  • Tuberculosis
  • alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Lung cancer 
 

Herbs For COPD:


Author:

Justin Cooke

The Sunlight Experiment

Updated: April 2018


Recent Blog Posts:

References:

  1. ...

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Overview:

Chronic fatigue syndrome or CFS, is a complex syndrome characterised by long term (6 months or more) severe or disabling fatigue with no other clinical explanation (such as influenza or other viral infection). The United States Centers For Disease control and Prevention (CDC) list the following as diagnosis for CFS:

  1. Severe idopathic pain lasting 6 months or longer
  2. Having 4 or more of the following symptoms:
    • Post-exertional malaise
    • Impaired memory or concentration
    • Unrefreshing sleep
    • Muscle pain
    • Multi-joint pain without redness or swelling
    • Tender cervical or axillary lymph nodes
    • Sore throat
    • Headache
  3. The symptoms must have persisted or been recurring for 6 months or longer and have not predated the fatigue.

In the past this condition was referred to as "neurasthenia", and more modernly "myalgic encephalomyelitis" or "post viral fatigue syndrome". Doctors used to dismiss these patients of being "hypochondriacs" as there was no identifiable cause for the illness.

 

Aetiology:

Possible causes:

+ Viruses

  • Epstein Barr (EBV)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) (HHV-6)
  • Coxsackie B Virus
  • Human parvovirus (HPV)-B19

+ Bacteria

  • Mycoplasmal blood infections
  • Staphylococcus spp.
  • Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)

+ Fungi

  • Candida albicans

+ Immune abnormalities and inflammation

  • Increased levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and TNF-beta have all been noted to be high in CFS patients.
  • Reduced NK levels have also been noted in CFS patients.

+ Pituitary And Hypothalimic Abnormalities

  • Structural abnormalities
  • Tumour

+ Circulatory abnormalities

  • Congestive heart failure
  • COPD

+ Brain and cognitive abnormalities

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Depression
 

Symptoms:

Chronic (>6 months) of disabling fatigue

Mild fever

Sore throat

Painful lymph nodes

Weight gain

Exertion malaise

Muscle weakness

Joint pain

Muscle pain

Headaches

Depression

Light-headedness

Anxiety

Cognitive impairment

Visual impairment

Sleep disturbances

 

Diagnostic Considerations:

  1. Severe idopathic pain lasting 6 months or longer
  2. Having 4 or more of the following symptoms:
    1. Post-exertional malaise
    2. Impaired memory or concentration
    3. Unrefreshing sleep
    4. Muscle pain
    5. Multi-joint pain without redness or swelling
    6. Tender cervical or axillary lymph nodes
    7. Sore throat
    8. Headache
  3. The symptoms must have persisted or been recurring for 6 months or longer and have not predated the fatigue.

Testing

  • FBE
  • Iron studies
  • B12/folate, vitamin D, RBC fatty acid profile
  • Thyroid panel – TSH, fT4/T3
  • Organix acids
  • Functional liver detoxification profile
  • Hair mineral analysis
  • Serum/saliva cortisol
  • Functional digestive stool analysis
  • Intestinal permeability – lactulose / mannitol
 

Therapeutic Aims:

1. Support The Adrenals

Depending on the cause for CFS, the adrenals will likely need to be regulated (adaptogens) or toned (adrenal tonics)

  • Adaptogens(Withania somnifera, Panax quinequefolius, Panax ginseng)
  • Adrenal Tonics(Rehmannia glutinosa)

2. Support The Immune System

Used to prevent recurring viral and bacterial infection common with CFS patients. When using tonic herbs, they are often contraindicated during infection, so preventing these infections are of utmost importance.

  • Immunomodulators(Glycyrrhiza glabra, Astragalus membranaceus, ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes, Echinaceae purpurea)
  • Immune Stimulants
  • Antivirals ()
  • Antibacterials(Hypericum perforatum, Salvia officinalis, baptisia tinctoria, Thymus vulgaris, Tabebuia impetiginosa)

3. Reduce Inflammation

Downregulate cytokine production and other immune responses.

  • Antinflammatories (COX and LOX inhibitors)(Curcuma longa, Boswellia serrata)
  • Antinflammatories (glucocoritcomimetics)(Glycyrrhiza glabra, Rehmannia glutinosa)
  • Antinflammatories (eicosanoid synthesis modulators)(Scutellaria baicalensis)
  • Antinflammatories (TNF-a & NF-kB)(Curcuma longa)
  • Immunosupressants(In some cases)
  • Antioxidants(Camellia sinensis, Vitis vinefera)

4. Identify & Address Infection

  • Antibacterials(Thymus vulgaris)
  • Antivirals()
  • Antifungals(Tabebuia impetiginosa)
  • Antiparasitics()

5. Address Any Nutritional Deficiencies

6. Optimise Neurotransmitter Function

  • Nootropics (Bacopa monieri, ginkgo biloba, Camellia sinensis, Vinca major, Romarinus officinalis)
  • Nervine Trophorestoratives (Centella asiatica)

7. Promote Gentle Detoxification

  • Depuratives(Taraxicum offinale, Urtica dioica (leaves), Trifolium pratense, zanthoxylum clava-herculis, Calendula officinalis, Rumex crispus)

8. Improve Sleep Quality

  • Sedatives(Scutellaria lateriflora, Passiflora incarnata, matricaria recutita, Zizyphus jujube, Humulus lupulus, Valeriana officinalis)
  • Adaptogens(Withania somnifera)

9. Support Mood

  • Antidepressants(hypericum perforatum, Trichilia catigua)
  • Thymoleptics(Melissa officinalis, Turnera diffusa)
  • Nervine Relaxants(Passiflora incarnata, Scutellaria lateriflora, Verbena officinalis)
 

Differential Diagnosis:

Adrenal insufficiency, fibromyalgia, cancer

 

Herbs For Chronic Fatigue Syndrome:

  • Lycium spp
  • Hypericum perforatum
  • Salvia miltorrhiza
  • Gingko biloba
  • Valerian
  • Avena sativa
  • Phytolacca decandra
  • Astragalus membranaceus
  • Echinacea spp.
  • Scutellaria lateriflora
  • Andrographis paniculata
  • Thymus vulgaris
 

Nutrients For Chronic Fatigue Syndrome:

  • B vitamins
  • Vitamin, C, D
  • Mg
  • Zn
  • EFAs
  • 5-HTP
  • SAMe
  • CoQ10
  • L-carnitine
  • Probiotics
 

Pharmaceutical Interventions For CFS:

  • SSRIs, tricyclic antidepressants for sleep disorders
  • Aspirin, NSAIDS for pain management
  • Serotonergic modulators (fluoxetine) (SSRIs, SNRIs, NRIs) for associated mood disorders

  • Benzodiazepines for anxiety
  • Non-sedating histamines for allergic responses
  • Gammaglobulin therapy: administered intramuscularly two to three times per month for passive immunity (no evidence of efficacy and expensive)
  • Alpha-interferon – enhances immune response.
 

Herb & Nutrient Interactions With Pharmaceutical Interventions:

Screenshot 2018-03-19 13.34.35.png
 

Author:

Justin Cooke

The Sunlight Experiment

Updated: March 2018


Recent Blog Posts:

References:

  1. ...