Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)


Rosemary Summary:

Plants have ingenious ways of spreading their seeds around the world.

One of the most successful is the rosemary shrub.

It's desirable flavor, and useful medicinal qualities have enticed humans to carry its seeds along with them from Europe as they spread to all corners of the earth.

The majority of rosemary around the world is used for its desirable culinary quality, however, there are plenty of good medicinal uses of the plant as well.

It's used primarily as a nervine, circulatory stimulant, and digestive.

It stimulates blood flow to the body and the brain and has the benefits of promoting mental clarity, and moving other herbs deeper into the peripheral blood system.

The volatile oils contained in its leaves stimulate digestion and soothe upset stomachs.

Here's everything I know about rosemary.


+ Indications

  • Flatulent dyspepsia
  • Headaches
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Sciatica
  • Neuralgia
  • Balding
  • Muscle Aches & Pains

+ Contraindications

None noted.

Herbal Actions:

  • Antidepressant
  • Antimicrobial
  • Antispasmodic
  • Emmenagogue
  • Nervine Stimulant
  • Nootropic
  • Rubefacient
  • Carminative

How Is Rosemary Used?

Rosemary is popular in cooking. It's used medicinally to increase bloodflow to the brain, reduce nerve pain, and improve digestion. The essential oil is used topically to promote bloodflow and stimulate the hair follicles involved with premature balding.


Weekly Dose

Part Used

  • Leaf & twigs

Family Name

  • Lamiaceae


  • Originally from Mediterranean, but has since spread all over the world.

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Constituents of Interest

  • Volatile oil (borneol, camphene, camphor, linalool)
  • Apigenin
  • Rosmarinic acid
  • Carnosol & Carnosolic acid
  • Rosmaricine

Common Names

  • Rosemary
  • Roosmaryn (Afrikaans)
  • Rozmarinë (Albania)
  • Ikleel al-Jabal (Arabic)
  • Rozmarin (Bulgaria)
  • Romarin (France/Germany)
  • Mannenro (Japan)
  • Alecrim (Portugal)
  • Mi Die Xiang (China)


  • CYP1A2
  • CYP3A4
  • CYP2C9
  • Also P-gp


  • Warm, Acrid


  • Caution advised during pregnancy.


  • Sweet, Acrid, Slightly Bitter

Duration of Use

  • Long term use is acceptable.

Research Overview:

Still compiling research


Botanical Info:

Rosemary is a mamber of the mint family, which is one of the largest plant families. It contains roughly 236 different genera, and 6900-7200 different species.

The Rosmarinus genus contains 4 different species, the one most commonly used as medicine is Rosmarinus officinalis, though the other species also have some use in the regions in which it grows.

It's hardy to colder climates, but grows primarily in the Mediterranean. It's also highly drought-resistant, and can survive without water for very long periods of time.


Clinical Applications Of Rosemary:

Rosemary is most useful as a circulatory stimulant, nervine stimulant, carminative and digestive.

It's used to treat cognitive conditions involving poor bloodflow like Alzheimer's disease, syncope, and headaches. it's also used as a nootropic and for increasing blood flow to the follicles of the hair to support hair growth. The essential oil is especially useful here for addressing symptoms of premature balding. It's also an excellent nervine used for conditions like neuralgia, sciatica, and depression when associated with debility or concussion.

Its digestive properties make it useful for addressing flatulence, indigestion, dyspepsia, and recovery from intestinal tract infection.



Caution advised if pregnant.


Recommended Products Containing Rosemary:

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Whole Dried Rosemary Leaf

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1.23-Ounce Container Filled With Organic Rosemary Leaves

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Rosemary Essential Oil (1 ounce)

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Thought Flow

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Justin Cooke

The Sunlight Experiment

(Updated November 2018)

Recent Blog Posts:

Frankincense (Boswellia serrata)

frankincense resin and oil

Frankincense Summary

Frankincense has been a valuable herb for a long time. It was so valuable at the time, it was one of the three precious gifts given to Jesus at his birth along with Myrhh, and gold. The value of frankincense comes from its powerful medicinal actions, which we now understand to be through antiseptic and antinflammatory actions. In the past, however, these medicinal actions were not well understood, but the wide range of conditions antinflammatories can treat made it a bit of a panaceae of its time. On top of this, the rich volatile oil content made frankincense an excellent source of incense for celebrations and ceremonies.

Frankincense is incredibly hardy, growing out of rock faces in the scortching Somali sun, often going months without water.


+ Indications

  • Asthma
  • Cancer
  • Crohn's disease
  • Diverticulitis
  • General inflammation
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)
  • Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome (IBS)
  • Lymphoma
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
  • Ulcerative colitis

+ Contraindications

None noted.

+ Mechanisms

  • 5-LOX inhibitor
  • Mild COX inhibitor

Herbal Actions:

  • Antioxidant
  • Antinflammatory
  • Antiseptic
  • Carminative
  • Vulnerary
  • Emmenagogue

What Is Frankincense Used For?

The main use for frankincense internally is for its potent antinflammatory effects. It works mainly as a 5-LOX inhibitor, which differentiates it from COX inhibitors like Aspirin, Salix alba, or Curcuma longa. Frankincense is best used for conditions like osteoarthritis and vascular/neural inflammation, and in combination with COX inhibitors for inflammatory bowel disease or hyperpermeability of the gastrointestinal lining.

Topically frankincense is used in salves or as a linement for wounds and infection. The essential oil is inhaled for asthma, lung infeciton, or as a mild sedative.


Traditional Uses

+ Ayurvedic Medical System

Boswellia was commonly used in Ayurveda as an astringent and anti-inflammatory agent topically and as a stimulant and expectorant topically.

It was used for pulmonary conditions, diarrhea, rheumatism, dysentery, gonorrhea, dysmenorrhea, syphilis, weakness, poor appetite, and various liver conditions.


Weekly Dose

Weekly Dose

(Powdered Extract)

  • 2100-3500 mg

Part Used

  • Resin

Family Name

  • Burseraceae


  • Middle East

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Constituents of Interest

  • Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA):
  • Alpha-boswellic acid
  • 3-acetyl-ß-boswellic acid
  • Pinene

Common Names

  • Frankincense
  • Olibanum
  • Boswellia
  • Sallaki (Sanskrit)








Slightly minty, bitter

Duration of Use

  • Suitable for long term use.

Botanical Information

Frankincense is a member of the Burseraceae family of plants, which includes 17-19 different genera and 540 species. This family is characterised by a nonallergenic resin produced in nearly all plant tissue as well as flaking bark patterns.

The Boswellia genus contains roughly 30 different species. The main species used today is Boswellia serrata, although Boswellia carteri is also used in some parts of the world. Biblical frankincense is believed to have been Boswellia sacra.


Harvesting Collection, and Preparation:

Due to the high alcohol content needed to extract the resin, this herb is generally given as a tablet or capsule, rather than a tincture or liquid extract.


Pharmacology & Medical Research

+ Neurological Disorders

Boswellic acids ability to pass the blood brain barrier, combined with its potent antinflammatory activity make it an interesting candidiate for neurological conditions involving inflammation like Alzheimer's disease. More research is needed to explore this use in detail.

+ Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The pathophysiology of Inflammatory Bowel Disease including both ulcerative colitis and crohns disease involves the leaking of luminal components into the lamina propria, resulting in significant inflammatory response involving TNF-a, IL-1, IL-6, IFN-y, and free radical components released from macrophages in the area. The main mechanism of treatment for this condition is to halt the inflammatory cascade happening within these tissues. [3, 7].

Acetyl-11-keto-fl-boswellic acid (AKBA) in Boswellia serrata has been shown to have marked 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), [5], and cyclooxygenase (COX-1) inhibitory activity [1].

Additionally, Boswellia serrata has been shown to have significant TNFα, IL-1β, NO and MAP kinase inhibitory activity [2].



  • Wellic acids (triterpenoids)
  • Pentacy-clic triterpene acids (beta-boswellic acid and acetyl-boswellic acids(acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, acetyl-11- keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) and 11-keto-beta-boswellic acid)), tetracyclic triterpene acids.
  • Terpenols
  • Monosaccharides
  • Uronic acids
  • Sterols
  • Phlobaphenes

Clinical Applications Of Frankincense:

Frankincense is useful for most forms of inflammation, including inflammatory bowel conditions, oasteoarthritis, and vascular inflammation. It's aromatic component makes it reliable for relieving flatulence, bloating, and indigestion.



Some allergies have been reported.



Justin Cooke, BHSc

The Sunlight Experiment

(Updated November 2018)


Recent Blog Posts:


  1. Cao, H., Yu, R., Choi, Y., Ma, Z. Z., Zhang, H., Xiang, W., ... & van Breemen, R. B. (2010). Discovery of cyclooxygenase inhibitors from medicinal plants used to treat inflammation. Pharmacological research, 61(6), 519-524.

  2. Gayathri, B., Manjula, N., Vinaykumar, K. S., Lakshmi, B. S., & Balakrishnan, A. (2007). Pure compound from Boswellia serrata extract exhibits anti-inflammatory property in human PBMCs and mouse macrophages through inhibition of TNFα, IL-1β, NO and MAP kinases. International immunopharmacology, 7(4), 473-482.

  3. Kühl, A. A., Erben, U., Kredel, L. I., & Siegmund, B. (2015). Diversity of intestinal macrophages in inflammatory bowel diseases. Frontiers in immunology, 6, 613.

  4. Honkanen, T., Mustonen, J., Kainulainen, H., Myllymiki, J., Collin, P., Hurme, M., & Rantala, I. (2005). Small bowel cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) expression in patients with IgA nephropathy. Kidney international, 67(6), 2187-2195.

  5. Sailer, E. R., Subramanian, L. R., Rall, B., Hoernlein, R. F., Ammon, H., & Safayhi, H. (1996). Acetyl‐11‐keto‐β‐boswellic acid (AKBA): structure requirements for binding and 5‐lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. British journal of pharmacology, 117(4), 615-618.

  6. Volta, U., Tovoli, F., Cicola, R., Parisi, C., Fabbri, A., Piscaglia, M., ... & Caio, G. (2012). Serological tests in gluten sensitivity (nonceliac gluten intolerance). Journal of clinical gastroenterology, 46(8), 680-685.

  7. Wakefield, A. J., Dhillon, A. P., Rowles, P. M., Sawyerr, A. M., Pittilo, R. M., Lewis, A. A. M., & Pounder, R. E. (1989). Pathogenesis of Crohn's disease: multifocal gastrointestinal infarction. The Lancet, 334(8671), 1057-1062.

Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia)

lavender lavandula angustifolia

Lavender Overview

Lavender is one of the most famous herbs known to man. It's cultivated on a massive scale throughout Europe and North America, and is a popular flavouring and aromatic agent for household products.

Medicinally lavender is best known for its ability to pomote sleep. It's often sold as aromatherapy, in salves and creams, and incense for this purpose. Lavender is also great for internal use, where it interacts with the GABA system to produce relaxation and sleep.

Levender essential oil is common as a topical agent for insect bites, rashes, and infection.

Monograph Coming Soon

+ Indications

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Anxiety
  • Bacterial infections
  • Bloating
  • Cognitive dysfunciton
  • Colic
  • Depression mild
  • Dysbiosis
  • Dysmenorrhoea
  • Fungal infection
  • Headaches
  • Insect bites
  • Insomnia
  • Irritable bowel syndrome IBS
  • Pain management
  • Parasitic infection
  • Premenstrual syndrome
  • Rheumatism
  • Sympathetic nervous dominance

+ Contraindications

  • Pharmaceutical sedatives

Main Herbal Actions:

  • Analgesic (mild)
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-cancer
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Antidepressant
  • Antifungal
  • Antioxidant
  • Anxiolytic
  • Antiparasitic
  • Carminative
  • Nervine Relaxant
  • Neuroprotective
  • Antispasmodic

Main Uses:

Lavender is mainly used in topical applications for rashes, skin irritations, mild infections, sunburn, and insect bites. Internally it's mainly used for anxiety-related conditions, GIT inflammation and discomfort, and insomnia.


Daily Dosage

Liquid Extract

Ratio: 1:2

2-5 mL

Weekly Dosage

Liquid Extract

Ratio: 1:2

15-30 mL


Part Used

Lavandula angustifolia

Family Name



Mediterranean and Southern Europe

Northern and Eastern Africa

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Constituents of Interest

  • Monoterpene Alcohols
  • Anthocyanins

Common Names

  • Lavender
  • Laventelit (Finland)
  • English Lavender

Botanical Info:

Lavender is a member of the mint family (Lamiaceae). In the genus Lavandula there are approximatly 47 species. Most of these perennials, or small shrubs. There are a number of lavenders used medicinally.

  • Lavandula angustifolia (English Lavender)
  • Lavandula stoechas (French Lavender)
  • Lavendula dentata (Spanish Lavender)

This list is disputed by many taxonomists, suggesting that French lavender may be Lavandula stoechas or Lavandula dentata, and that Spanish lavender could be either Lavandula dentata, or Lavandula lanata, or Lavandula dentata.


Research Overview:

Still compiling research.

Level Of Research:


Clinical Applications Of Lavender:

Lavender is useful topically for female conditions including dysmenorrhoea and PMS due to its antispasmoduc and analgesic effects. It's also useful topically for its antifungal and antibacterial effects. Internally lavender can be used for gastrointestinal complaints, including bloating, flatulence, and colic.

Lavender is a reliable nervine for its GABAergic activity. Additionally it has been shown to reverse the stimulating effects induced by caffeine, and inhibits acetylcholine release.



Lavender has been proven to be a very safe herb with a low incidence of adverse effects.

Avoid use with pharmaceutical sedatives due to the possibility of agonistic synergy.


Monograph Coming Soon


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