Opioid Summary:

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Pharmacology:

Opioids are generally not well absorbed orally. They can be either opioid agonists such as morphine and methadone, or opioid antagonists like Naloxone. 

Opioids bind to the opioid receptor sites in the brain and spinal cord to inhibit the release of Substance P which acts as a messenger to transfer the signal of pain stimulation from the nociceptors to the brain for processing. 


Adverse Reactions:

  • Respiratory depression
  • Sedation
  • Vomiting
  • Constipation
  • Dysphoria
  • Hypotenion
  • Cerebral and spinal ischaemia

Tolerance: 

Opioids use has a high ability to create tolerance within the body. The anaglesic, sedation, nausea, and vomiting effects are subject to tolerance but not the constipation, confusion, and hallucination effects. This can make adverse reactions a problem as dose increases. 


How Pain Works:

Pain is triggered by special sensors in the body known as nocicpetors. Once activated, a signal travels down the afferent terminal to the spinal cord. From here is hits a synapse, which is controlled b


  • drug name
  • Generic name
  • Trade name
  • Chemical name
  • Main action or classification (ex: adenosine antagonist)
  • Receptor
  • Source: synthetic, naturally ocurring, or herbal derrivative
  • Where did the original mocecule come from?
  • Common dosage
  • Chemical structure

Opioid Drug List:

 

Buprenorphine

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Generic Name: Buprenorphine
Brand Name: Buprenex
Main Action: Partial Opioid Agonist
Receptor: Opioid (mu)
Source: Synthetic
Common Dosage: xxx

Codeine

Codeine is considered to be medium-low strength when compared to the other opiate drugs. It is a prodrug that is metabolised into morphine in the liver. Has sewcondary antitussive and antidiarrheal effects (oral forms).

Generic Name: INSERT
Brand Name: INSERT
Main Action: Opiate agonist
Receptor: Opiate receptor (Various)
Source: Synthetic
Common Dosage: 15 to 60 mg up to every 4 hours as needed

Dextropropoxyphene

Now obselete due to cardiotoxicity and lack of advantages over other opiates.

Generic Name: INSERT
Brand Name: INSERT
Main Action: Opiate agonist
Receptor: Opiate receptors (
Source: Synthetic
Common Dosage: No longer in use.

Diamorphine

Diamorphine, also known as Heroin is a potent illegal opioid drug made from the naturally ocurring morphine. This drug was originally made by the pharmaceutical giant Bayer. It is now one of the most dangerous street drugs in the world.

Generic Name: Diamorphine
Brand Name: Heroin
Main Action: Opiate agonist
Receptor: Opiate receptors (??)
Source: Synthetic
Common Dosage: NOT USED MEDICALLY

Fentanyl

Fentanyl has a high potency and short duration of action. It is mainly used for day surgery and for breakthrough pain in cancer patients. High potential for drug abuse.

Generic Name: Fentanyl
Brand Name: Sublimaze (injection), Abstral (sublingual tablet), Actiq (lozenge), Duragesic (transdermal patch), Fentora (buccal tablet), Lazanda (nasal spray), Subsys (sublingual spray)
Main Action: Opiate agonist
Receptor: Opioid receptors(??)
Source: Synthetic
Common Dosage: Various depending on form

Diamorphine

Diamorphine, also known as Heroin is a potent illegal opioid drug made from the naturally ocurring morphine. This drug was originally made by the pharmaceutical giant Bayer. It is now one of the most dangerous street drugs in the world.

Generic Name: Diamorphine
Brand Name: Heroin
Main Action: Opiate agonist
Receptor: Opiate receptors (??)
Source: Synthetic
Common Dosage: NOT USED MEDICALLY

Methadone

Methadone has similar activity to morphine but has better bioavailability. The duration of action for this medication can be extended to 72 hours with repeated oral dosing. It is often used in detoxification programs for heroin addicts.

Generic Name: Methadone
Brand Name: Dolophine, Methadose, Methadose Sugar-Free, Diskets
Main Action: Opiate agonist
Receptor: Opiate receptors (???)
Source: INSERT
Common Dosage: xxx

Morphine

Morphine comes from the poppy seed (Papaver sommnifera). It is the basis on which synthetic derrivatives were made from. Morphine comes in various forms. it is rapidly absorbed, and easily cleared through the urine (polar compound).

Generic Name: Morphine
Brand Name: AVINza, Kadian, MS Contin
Main Action: Opiate agonist
Receptor: Opiate receptors (???)
Source: Papaver sommnifera
Common Dosage: 15 to 30 mg orally every 4 hours as needed

Naloxone

Naloxone blocks the effects of opioid medication. it is used to treat opiate overdose in emergency situations and to diagnose possible opioid overdose. It can bind to all 3 opiate receptor sites but has a stronger affinity for mu receptors.

Generic Name: Naloxone
Brand Name: Evzio
Main Action: Opiate antagonist
Receptor: Opiate receptors (mu, kappa, delta)
Source: Synthetic?
Common Dosage: 0.4 mg to 2 mg IV

Oxycodone

Oxycodone is a potent synthetic opioid (10 times as potent as codeine). it comes in a variety of dosage forms and strengths and is used to treat moderate to severe pain.

Generic Name: Oxycodone
Brand Name: Oxycontin
Main Action: Opiate agonist
Receptor: Opiate receptor (???)
Source: Synthetic
Common Dosage: 5 to 15 mg orally every 4 to 6 hours

Pethadine

Pethadine has a low bioavailability and is mainly used for short term use during postoperative pain or other acute forms of pain. It produces a neurotoxic metabolite that can accumulate with long term use.

Generic Name: Pethadine
Brand Name: Demerol
Main Action: Opiate agonist
Receptor: Opiate receptors (???)
Source: Synthetic
Common Dosage: Varied according to form

Tramadol

Tramadol is an opiate-like analgesic. It is an opiate agonist, but has no structural similarity to the other opioids. It is also a serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and NMDA receptor antagonist.

Generic Name: Tramadol
Brand Name: ConZip, Ultram
Main Action: Opiate agonist and SSRI
Receptor: Opiate receptors (mu)
Source: Synthetic ?
Common Dosage: Unknown