Skullcap is considered one of the best nervine herbs ever discovered. The most common species used is Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap).
All species of skullcap can be used interchangably, and all parts of the plant can be used. That said, Scutellaria lateriflora (American skullcap) is preferred for its nervine effects in conditions like anxiety and depression, and Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap) is preferred for its anti-alleric and anti-inflammatory actions. The root is preferred for antiviral actions and the leaves for anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions.
That said, all parts of the plant will produce similar actions as the plant has the same chemistry throughout, just in different proportions.
Chinese skullcap makes a great addition to any formula where a nervine may be useful. It has a high lev el of safety, and is effective even in smaller amounts.
- Antiviral (Mainly root)
- Mild astringent
Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese)
Syn: S. microcantha
Scutellaria lateriflora (American)
Scutellaria galericulata (English)
Scutellaria coccinea (Mexico)
Whole herb used
The root exclusively should be used as an antiviral .
Liquid Extract (1:2)
4.5-8.5 ml/day 
Tincture (1:5) (40%)
General: 2-4 ml three times/day 
For sleep: 2-4 ml about 30 minutes before bedtime 
For Viral Infection: 5-10 ml 3 times a day 
250 ml water with 5-10g dried herb. Allow this to infuse at least 15 min and drink3 times a day or as needed. .
- Nervous conditions:
- Nervous headaches
- St Vitus' dance
- Chronic inflammatory conditions
- Nausea and vomiting
- Adjuvant treatment for cancer
- Petite mal seizures
- Severe hiccough
- Premenstrual tension
- Jet lag
- Virginian Skullcap
- Mad-dog Skullcap
- Toque (French)
- Huang Qin (Chinese)
- Helmet flower
- Quaker bonnet
Chinese skullcap has a long history of use world wide for very similar uses.
In Tibet, S. barbata is the most common species, where it is juiced (both root and leaves) and used for wounds, fevers, indigestion, and gastric disturbances .
In North America, the main species used traditionally was S. lateriflora. The native Americans here used the leaves to treat sore eyes, chills, fever, colds, coughs, heart problems, and as a laxative. The roots were used as an emmenagogue, and abortifacient, antidiarrheal, nervine, treat kidney disorders, cold and flu, and to prevent smallpox .
The leaves were often used in the form of a tea, or steamed and eaten as a vegetable .
Priest and priest suggested skullcap fas a diffusive, and a stimulating and relaxing vasodilator and trophorestorative. They suggested it useful for treating nervous irritation of the cerebro-spinal nervous system, nervous exhaustion, post-febrile nervous weakness, chorea, hysteria, agitation, epileptiform convulsions, insomnia, and restless sleep. .
In western botanical practice, skullcaps of all varieties are used mainly as a nervine, but also for conditions such as chorea, convulsions, hysteria, nervous tension, intermittent fever, neuralgia, insomnia, and restlessness. [2, 17].
Still compiling research.
Habitat Ecology, and Distribution:
Skullcap generally grows in moist, sandy areas, but can be found in all sorts of environments the world over. It has even been found growing up to about 6000 feet in altitude .
It is native to China, Mongolia, Japan, Korea, Siberia, Russia .
Harvesting Collection, and Preparation:
Still compiling research.
[2-4, 10, 17]
Scutellaria baicalensis reportedly contains more than 295 different compounds.
- Volatile oils
- Scutellarin (bitter glycoside)
Pharmacology and Medical Research:
The flavonol and flavone content of skullcap (especially baicalein and wogonin) were shown to inhibit histamine release from the mast cells [1, 20]. It was found to moderate mast cell release of histamine by restoring IL-8 and TNF-alpha expression, as well as inhibiting MAP kinase expression .
Luteolin and baicalein were shown to inhibit IgE mediated allergic reactions in mice .
Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) flavonoids such as oroxylin A has been the subject of a great deal of study. It has been found to possess inhibitory actions against such inflammatory factors as NF-kB , and was found to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines via inducing a translocation of p53 to mitochondria .
Scutellaria baicalensis flavonoids (especially oroxylin A) has been found to have anti-inflammatory (and subsequent anti-cancer) actions [11, 12]. It has been found to possess inhibitory actions against such inflammatory cytokines as TNF-alpha, and IL-6 . Wogonin, and baicalein were both found to be direct COX-2 inhibitors .
Flavonoids from Scutellaria baicalensis were suggested to produce anxiolytic actions via the GABA receptors . More research is needed.
Scutellaria baicalensis (Chinese skullcap) is the preferred antiviral species by herbalist Stephen Buhner. He reports the roots act as a broad antiviral. The mechanism of actions are through inhibiting hem-agglutinin and neuraminidase, inhibiting viral replication, inhibiting viral fusion with cells, cytoprotective against viral-initiates cytokines, reduces the expression of the viral matrix protein gene, inhibiting viral release from infected cells, inhibiting viral cytokine cascades, and increases apoptosis of virus infected cells, and finally via direct virucidal actions [2 (Pg. 133)].
Some of these actions can be due to the flavonoids mosloflavone, oroxylin A, and norwogonin, contained within Scutellaria baicalensis. All of these flavonoids purified from Skullcap were found to significantly inhibit Coxsackievirus B3 induced cell death. Oroxylin A especially has proven to possess positive effects against viral infection. This chemical was found in particular to reduce viral titers in the pancreas, and decrease inflammatory cytokine levels including IL-6, and TNF-alpha  which are both well known to contribute greatly to the cytokine storm associated with the damage viral infection causes .
Scutellaria baicalensis was also shown to have broad spectrum antiviral actions in other studies agains viruses such as influenza virus through an inhibitory action agains neuraminidase enzyme activity in the virus . It has also been shown effective against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) ,
Scutellaria baicalensis extracts have been found effective against:
- Various influenza viruses [2,15, 23]
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) [2,24]
- Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) [2,16]
- Epstein Barr Virus 
- Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) 
Liver fibrosis is characterized by an excessive deposition of extracellular matrix in the liver parenchyma. It is associated with the inflammatory and reparative phase of hepatic fibrosis, conducted by activated hepatic stellate cells. [5, 6]. The flavonoids contained in Scutellaria baicalensis was suggested to inhibit TGF-β fibrosis pathway in a Chinese herbal combination (San Huang Shel Shin Tang) which contains Rheum officinale, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Coptis chinensis, all of which contain similar flavonoid components such as baicalein .
Sckullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) alone has been found in past studies to provide a protective action against acute liver toxicity [7-9].
Toxicity and Contraindications:
- Contraindicated for cold conditions in traditional Chinese medical system 
- No adverse reactions expected in pregnancy and lactation 
- Overdoses of the tincture is suggested to cause giddiness, stupor, confusion, and twitching. If this occurs, reduce the dose given. .
- Skullcap may interact with sedative medications, potentiating their effects due to similar actions .
- Caution should be used in type I diabetes due to it's effect on insulin and blood sugar levels 
Traditional Chinese Medicine:
Pinyin: Huáng Qín
Taste: Bitter [18, 19]
Energy: Cold [18, 19]
Channels: Lung, Gallbladder, Stomach large intestine 
Actions: Dispels (clears) heat, expels (drains) damp heat, drains fire, detoxificant, stops bleeding, calms the fetus [1, 18, 19].
Indications: The roots are generally the preferred part of the plant in Chinese medicine, used for fevers, cough with thick sputum, pneumonia, nausea, vomiting, hemoptysis, jaundice, viral hepatitis, diarrhoea, dysentry-like diseases, painful urination, hypertension, restless foetus, carbuncles, allergic conditions, hyperlipidemia, vexing heat,internal accumulation of heat toxin, bleeding due to heat exuberance, internal accumulation of damp-heat, and dermoatitis [1, 17, 18].
Cautions: Do not use with cold syndromes of deficiency type .
In traditional Chinese medicine, skullcap is considered one of the 50 fundamental herbs, and as such is one of the most commonly used herbs in this medical system .
Herbalist Stephen Buhner suggests skullcap as a synergist herbal for its potentiating effects on other herbs. He considers it especially synergistic with the pharmaceutical antivirals and antibacterials ribavarin, albendazole, ciprofloxacin, and amphotericin B. He reports that skullcap is synergistic with antibiotics by it's ability to inhibit the Nor A efflux pump of resistent bacteria . He also reports that skullcap has the ability to dose dependently inhibit (the effects increase as dose increases) the CYP3A4 enzymes in the liver which are responsible for drug metabolism . This allows the drugs to persist longer, and may potentiate the effectiveness of these drugs.
Suggested to be synergistic as an antiviral with liquorice .
Recent Blog Posts:
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- A Modern Herbal. (1931). Skullcaps. Retrieved from http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/s/scullc34.html
- Hoffmann, D. (2003). Medical herbalism: The science and practice of herbal medicine. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press. (Pg. 582)
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- Yeh, Y., Ting, W., Kuo, W., Hsu, H., Lin, Y., Shen, C., Huang, C. (2016). San Huang Shel Shin Tang beta-cyclodextrin complex augmented the hepatoprotective effects against carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1). doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1127-8
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- Nan JX, Park EJ, Kim YC, Ko G, Sohn DH. (2002). Scutellaria baicalensis inhibits liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation or carbon tetrachloride in rats. J Pharm Pharmacol. 54:555–63.
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