Muira Puama Summary:
Muira puama (Ptychopetalum olacoides), is a well known Amazonian medicinal plant. It's traditionally used for age related disorders like Alzheimers and Dementia, as well as general memory and concentration dysfunctions.
Muira puama is considered an adaptogen, which means it can strengthen the bodies resistance to stress, and thus increase the bodies ability to avoid or recover from disease.
It's slowly becoming popular as a general health and memory supplement and is commonly used for its ability to improve sexual function in both males and females. Its benefits include cognitive enhancement, athletic support, combats sexual dysfunctions like low libido and erectile dysfunction, and has been used in the past to treat and prevent baldness.
The recommended way to consume muira puama is through an alcoholic extract. This is because the majority of its medicinal components are soluble in alcohol and may not be bioavailable in a water extract (tea).
Bark and roots.
Not To Be Confused With:
AKA: quebra-faca, caatinga branca, velame” and canela-de-velho
This species is often suggested as a substitute for Ptychopetalum olacoides but is in fact a very different plant .
- Enhances memory
- Male tonic
4-8 mL/day (tonic dose)
10-12 mL/day (nerve pain or impotence)
This method of intake is not recommended due to the inability for most of the active constituents to dissolve in water.
500 mg/day for 2 days with one day off. Repeat.
Aphrodisiac/sexual stimulant for age or stress related impotency or erectile dysfunction, or simply to increase penile hardness, and increase sexual desire. Used as an appetite stimulant, for body building, and athletic performance aid (especially useful after stressful exercises or sessions as recovery aid), for balding, Alzheimer's or other memory/neurological deficit, useful as a nerve tonic, and for diseases such as trigeminal neuralgia, nerve pain from shingles virus, multiple sclerosis, or other nerve related illnesses or weakness, fatigue, or mild-moderate exhaustion, depression. Used as a general tonic mostly for males but also of use for females, also a sexual tonic for both sexes, again, more effective for males. Aids in issues such as Heart arrhythmia, (especially those from ventricle fibrillation), high cholesterol, infections (especially by the organisms Klebsiella, and Acintobacter gram negative bacteria), joint pain (used both topically and internally), paralysis from poliomyelitis (used both internally and topically), periods of mental strain (wether from testing, overwork, or emotional causes), upset stomach, and ulcers (especially those caused by stress).
- Uiratã, Muiratam
- Boise de la Puissance
- Bois de la puissance sexuelle
- Marapuama, Muira-Puama
- Potency w ood
In the Amazon rainforest, Muira puama has had a long history of use for a wide range of ailments. Every part of this amazing plant has been used as medicine, however this has evolved over time to using only the bark and roots. In the Rio Negro (Brazil), the native peoples in the area used Muira Puama as a sort of panacea, especially in age related illness. Some uses included treatments for baldness, fatigue, muscular weakness, and sexual debility (Leslie Taylor, ND, 2005). The traditional method of preparation involves mixing Muira Puama, and Catuaba (Erythroxylum catuaba, Trichilia catigua, or Anemopaegma arvense), and infusing them in warm water over night. "This will yield an amber coloured beverage that is ready to drink" (Leslie Taylor, ND, 2005). Another common preparation in the Amazon was a preparation [of P. olacoides] in Cachaça (the national distilled liquor from sugar cane), or in wine, and sold as “Garrafadas”. It was drunken daily before meals at a dose of around 60ml (A.L Patio et al., 2010). This preparation can be considered a tincture.
The natives of the Amazon also used this herb to treat what was referred to as “nervous weakness’, which include symptoms such as lassitude, general lack of interest/motivation, tremors, sexual debility, (A.L Patio et al., 2009). It was also commonly employed in stroke recovery, and aid in coping with stressful circumstances (both emotional and physical), in the Amazon. (Sequeira et al., 2004). The neuroprotective and memory ameliorating effects of this herb that have been discovered may be responsible for the success of this herb for these illness.
In Brazil, Ptychopetalum has been a popular herb for a long time . It is used for debilitating diseases, to increase physical endurance, ameliorate performance in mental tasks, improve memory, and recovery from sudden weight loss (A.L Patio et al., 2010).
According to (Leslie Taylor, ND, 2005). Muira puama is a small tree growing to about 15m in height, producing small, white flowers with a pungent jasmine like fragrance. The taste of the roots and bark are a bit salty, and acrid, while the odour is faint but woody. The tree is fairly nondescript, having ovate dark green to brown leaves, and a greyish coloured bark. When scratched, the inner bark is pink in colour. Muira puama is native to the Amazon rainforest, with other species of the family (Olacaceae) growing in tropical Africa. Of the genus there are 7 species, 2 in South America, and 5 in Africa. Of the South American species, P. olacoides is found throughout French Guyana, Guyana, Suriname, And Brazil. P. uncinatum however is only found in Brazil. These 2 species are virtually identical except for Lupeol content.
Both South American species are used interchangeably in traditional medicine, however P. olacoides is preferred currently due to its higher Lupeol content which is believed to be one of the active constituents of this plant. This species is also studied much more commonly than P. uncinatum.
Another completely different and unrelated species of tree found in Brazil is also referred to as Muira puama. Its botanical name is Liriosma ovata, it is also included under the Olacaceae family, however should not be used in the same way as the Ptychopetalum species due to lack of traditional use in this area, and virtually no scientific data on the medicinal use of this plant. There is unfortunately an overwhelming amount of confusion over this species on various unscholarly websites and blogs, talking about Liriosma ovata as if it were the same as Ptychopetalum. The shared name Muira Puama is most likely to blame for this confusion. Many foragers and herb retailers from the Amazon will try to sell Liriosma as Muira Puama on the market as well, so it is important to properly identify and purchase this herb from a reputable source.
Habitat, Ecology, Distribution:
Ptychopetalum uncinatum is found in the Brazilian portion of the Amazon rainforest, where as Ptychopetalum olacoides is found throughout the Amazon rainforest. Other species are found in tropical Africa (Leslie Taylor, ND, 2005).
Harvesting, Collection, Preparation:
The traditional preparation involves mixing with Erythroxylum catuaba (Leslie Taylor, ND, 2005)., and infusing in warm water overnight, however the medicinal constituents of Ptychopetalum is generally not soluble In water and is therefore better extracted into alcohol. The majority of studies done on P. olacoides have been conducted on the ethanol extract which is then sometimes lyophilized or concentrated further with other techniques, however the alcohol extract (tincture) is commonly used due to its simplicity.
Other methods of ingestion include powdering and capsulation, or pressing into tablets;
however, these are not preferred for the same reason as infusions (not water soluble).
This herb is a by-product of the logging industry in South America, however the devastation logging has on the rainforest biome makes this method of collection less than ideal (Leslie Taylor, ND, 2005). Skilled foragers can harvest the roots and bark of this plant without causing the same level of devastation to the surrounding area, so this method is preferred. A few websites sell this herb, and due to it being one of the more popular Amazonian herbs, it is relatively easy to find in health food, or herb shops either in encapsulated form or tincture. Online shops providing this herb can also be found quite easily. It is important to purchase this herb from a reputable source to reduce the likelihood of using the wrong plant (Liriosma ovata), as mentioned earlier.
If preparing a tincture from the raw dried plant, it is recommended to use the highest alcohol content possible. This can be achieved from using ethanol from sources such as Everclear, or other high proof alcohols/moonshines. Clear alcohol is recommended over dark or Amber liquors in order to extract as much medicinal constituents as possible (dark liquors already have particles in solution, and thus can not hold as many medicinal molecules as a clear alcohol). The standard ratio from dried plants is 1:5 meaning 1 part dried plant material (in g), to 5 parts alcohol (in ml).
The bark and roots are high in fatty acid esters (main one being behenic acid) (Leslie Taylor, ND, 2005), essential oils including beta-caryophyllene, and alpha-humulene, some phytosterols, triterpenes (including Lupeol), and an alkaloid named recently as muirapuamine. Also contained are other novel alkaloids, free long chain fatty acids, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and esters. Lupeol is described as one of the main constituents of this herb. In one study (L.A Santiago 2014) Lupeol was found to possess antioxidant properties. In other studies (R.S Trapore et al., 2014, Yan Liu et al., 2015), Lupeol was shown to exhibit anti-cancer properties in various forms of cancer.
The main plant chemicals found in muira puama include: alpha-copaene, alpha-elemene, alpha-guaiene, alpha-humulene, alpha-muurolene, alpha-pinene, alpha-resinic acid, alpha-terpinene, arachidic acid, allo-aromadendren, behenic acid, beta-bisabolene, beta-caryophyllene, beta-pinene, beta-resinic acid, beta-sitosterol, beta-transfarnesene, borneol, campesterols, camphene, camphor, car-3-ene, caryophyllene, cerotic acid, chromium, coumarin, cubebene, delta-cadinene, dotriacontanoic acid, elixene, ergosterols, eugenol, essential oils, gamma-muurolene, hentriacontanoic acid, heptacosanoic acid, lignoceric acid, limonene, linalool, lupeol, melissic acid, montanic acid, muirapuamine, myrcene, nonacosanoic acid, para-cymene, pentacosanoic acid, phlobaphene, stigmasterols, trichosanic acid, and uncosanic acid, (Leslie Taylor, ND, 2005).
Pharmacology and Medical Research:
The term "adaptogen" refers to plants or other substances that augment non-specific resistance in the body, and help the body to adapt to various situations. Therefore protecting it from stressful events and factors. (F.R Mendes et al., 2007). P. olacoides has been shown to exhibit anti-stress properties (A.L Patio et al., 2008/2009/2010), as well as neuroprotective, antioxidant (I.E Sequeira et al., 2007), libido enhancing (E. Antunes et al., 2001), and positive effects on memory (A.L da Silva et al., 2008). All suggesting its classification as Adaptogenic. One of these studies in particular, suggested that P. Olacoides could be classified as an adaptogen due to the combined results of the effects noted above (A.L Patio et al., 2010).
It has also been used in traditional medical systems throughout the Amazon as a "tonic" for many years. (Patio et al., 2009, 2010), thus providing generations of human testing.
A survey of Brazilian books (folk literature) (F.R Mendes et al., 2007) searched for plants with properties resembling those of an adaptogen, analyzed 24 books by authors from different areas of the country. Approximately 766 plants were suspected as being adaptogenic, and analyzed further. Only species from Brazil, and cited in at least 4 books were selected for further investigation. This resulted in 33 species (24 families). Of these, 4 plants had previous research investigating effects that are considered adaptogenic in nature (anti-stress, memory enhancement, increased physical or sexual performance). These plants included: Ptychopetalum olacoides, Paullinia cupana, Turnera diffusa, and Heteropterys aphrodisiaca.
An ethanol extract of P. olacoides showed significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro in the hippocampus, and striatum of rats. (A.L da Silva et al., 2009). The cholinergic hypothesis surrounding Alzheimers disease gives a good reason to believe that P. olacoides could be successful as a treatment to this debilitating disease.
Ptychopetalum olacoides has been used traditionally as treatment for age related illness (A.L Da Silva et al., 2009), as well as present day for more specific illnesses that can be classified under the same heading. P. olacoides neuroprotective effects (A.L Da Silva et al., 2009), anti-acetylcholinesterase properties (A.L Da Silva et al., 2009), Antioxidant properties (I.E Sequeira et al., 2007), Libido enhancing effects (E. Antunes et al., 2001), and Anti-stress effects (A.L Patio et al., 2010) all confirm the use of this herb to combat many age related illness including libido loss, and Alzheimers.
Lupeol, a triterpene, has been shown to demonstrate anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, and anti-arthritic properties both in vitro and in vivo (R.S Tarapore et al., 2013). Lupeol is found in many fruits, as well as many medicinal plants including aloe, and Ptychopetalum species. P. olacoides has a higher Lupeol content than P. uncinatum.
In pancreatic cancer (4th leading cause of cancer-mortality in the USA), the only potentially curative therapy is surgical resection, however only 15-20% of patients can be considered for surgery on presentation due to the advancement of the disease upon presentation, (Yan Liu et al., 2015). Chemotherapy also has limited efficacy on this disease, (Yan Liu et al., 2015). This prompts the immediate need for alternative therapies and treatments for this and similar pathologies, be it natural or synthetic. "Growing evidence suggest that natural products might be a good source to develop next generation anti cancer drugs” (Yan Liu et al., 2015). In a study conducted on the effects of Lupeol on pancreatic cancer(Yan Liu et al., 2015) researchers stated "Lupeol inhibits the proliferation of growth of PCNA-1 cells".
A study done on lupeols effect specifically on colorectal cancer stated that: "our data strongly advocate the efficacy of Lupeol against CRC (colorectal cancer) cells that exhibit constitutively active Wnt/b-cetenin signalling" (R.S Tarapore et al., 2013).
Lupeol anti-cancer properties have also been extensively studied on cancers such as prostate cancer, skin cancer, hepaticellular carcinoma, epidermoid carcinoma, and melanoma. (Yan Liu et al.m 2015).
Ptychopetalum olacoides ethanol extracts have been shown to produce anti stress effects (A.L Patio et al., 2008)(A.L Patio et al., 2009)(A.L Patio et al., 2010), Neuroprotective effects, and promnesic effects (A.L da Silva 2008). These effects combined, have a strong influence over prevention, and treatment of the pathology of depression. A study done on the standardized ethanol extract of Ptychopetalum olacoides (A.L Patio et al., 2009) showed a reduction in stress, and increased management of stress in mice trials. The effects seem to be through the D1-dopamine receptors, and b-noradrenergic receptors, which have both been shown to be relevant in other antidepressant drugs. A P. olacoides ethanol extract has also been shown to prevent stress-induced HPA-hyperactivity, which is known to be present in depressed individuals. (A.L da Silva et al., 2002).
The long standing use of P. olacoides in traditional medicine systems in the Amazon, also provide strong evidence of success in treating this illness with this plant. (A.L Patio et al., 2009.
A study done in vitro on the antimicrobial effects of amazon plants reported that the aqueous extract of P. olacoides (1:10 in distilled water, infused at 70c and lyophilized) had an inhibitory effect on the growth of Klebsiella ozaenae (a gram negative bacteria), and Acintobacter baumanniii (also gram negative bacteria), (Amanda A Oliveria et al., 2013). This gives compelling evidence that P. olacoides could have antibacterial actions on other gram-negative bacteria. More research is needed in this area however.
A study done on the antioxidant activities of Ptychopetalum olacoides on mice (I.R Siqueira et al., 2007) using an ethanol extract of P. olacoides (POEE), found reduced free radical production in the hypothalamus, as well as a significant decrease in lipid per-oxidation in the cerebral cortex, striatum, and hypothalamus. A lower carbonyl content in the cerebellum and striatum were also noted. “This study suggests that POEE contains compounds able to improve the cellular antioxidant efficacy in the brain, ultimately reducing the damage caused by oxidative stress’ (I.R Sequeira et al., 2007). One of the main antioxidant compound of this herb is reported to be Lupeol. This triterpene molecule is found in many plants and has been shown to possess antioxidant activities (L.A Santiago et al., 2014).
An ethanol extract of P. olacoides (POEE), has been shown to reduce stress in mice through various tests (A.L Patio et al., 2009). Another study out of Brazil (A.L Patio et al., 2010), found that POEE exhibited anti-stress properties in mice, measured by the light/dark test. This study made the connection between previously known neuroprotective actions, with the confirmed anti-stress actions from this study, and suggested this herb as adaptogen-like. The data found in this study indicates that this herb counteracts some of the effects caused by chronic stress. This same study showed that POEE can prevent chronic stress-induced anxiety, and although there were no direct effects found on glycaemia, it effectively prevented stress induced hyperglycaemia. The extract also increased hypoxia endurance in mice when administered both orally and intraperitoneal. All of these traits are what lead researchers in this study to suggest its classification as an adaptogen.
P. olacoides has also been shown to produce anti-hypoxic effects in mice, which have a direct connection to the pathology of stress. This may be due to a combination of the antioxidant properties, and its noradrenergic potentiating ability (Piato et al., 2008).
Stress has been proven to have an effect on the pathogenesis of various diseases. Such diseases include endocrine disease (including diabetes), immunosuppression, sexual and cognitive dysfunctions, peptic ulcer, hypertension, heart disease, anxiety, depression, and ulcerative colitis. (A.L Patio et al., 2010).
Anxiety is both a symptom, and a disorder by itself. It is characterized in humans by tense and physically exhaustive alertness. (A.L De Silva et al., 2002). An ethanol extract of P. olacoides (30, 100, and 300mg/kg doses) all found to decrease anxious behaviours in mice through various tests (A.L De Silva et al., 2002)
Lupeol, which is one of the more studied constituents found in many plants, has been shown to possess many amazing qualities, with anti-inflammatory being one of them. "Triterpenes are found to have anti-inflammatory activity without any toxic manifestation. The pentacyclic Triterpenes Lupeol and Lupeol linoleate were tested in adjuvant induced arthritis in rats, showed reduction in paw swelling by 39 and 58% respectively." (T. Geetha et al., 1999).
Proposed to have testosterone-like effects, though few credible studies have been conducted in this area. More research is needed in this area.
A study done in vitro on rabbits (E. Antunes et al., 2001) studying the effects of the herbal compound Catuama®, and its individual constituents has shown that injections of an extract of P. olacoides caused a dose dependent relaxation of the corpus cavernosum. Since the relaxation of the corpus cavernosum is a key step in penile erection, these results suggest a mechanism of action in treating impotence in males. The traditional use of this herb for these illnesses also add to the evidence that P. olacoides may be useful in the treatment of impotence and erectile dysfunction.
An animal study done (A.L da Silva 2008) showed that the ethanol extract of P. olacoides has a positive effect on memory retrieval in mice. This study investigated the role of serotonin receptors in P. olacoides effects on amnesia and other cognitive deficits found that the extracts mechanism of action involves the anti-acetylcholinesterase effects, as well as effects on beta-andrenergic and dopamine receptors. The study also found that the effects of P. olacoides ethanol extract (POEE) was increased through a synergistic action of 5HT (2A) (but not 5HT(1A)) serotonin antagonists, spiperone. The synergism can be identified as the combined effects of 5HT antagonism, or a combination of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory effects (POEE) and 5HT antagonism. This shows that P. olacoides has positive influence on both short term, and long term memory retrieval in mice through anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, as well as serotonin receptors in the brain.
Many neurodegenerative diseases (Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, autism, dementia, and Huntington's disease, for example) share similar traits and causative factors. Various mechanisms can be held responsible for the development of neurodegenerative disease such as oxidative stress, protein aggregates in neurons, depletion of neurotransmitters, mitochondrial malfunction, CNS inflammation, or damage of the blood brain barrier. (M. Rasool et al., 2014). Acetylcholinesterase as well as butyrylcholinesterase cause the breakdown of cholinesterase in the brain. Low cholinesterase has been associated with both age related disorders leading to cognitive decline. Thus increasing the likelihood for neurodegenerative disorders to take place. (M. Rasool et al., 2014).
Ptychopetalum olacoides has demonstrated antioxidant activity in the brain (I.R Sequeira et al., 2007), anti-acetlycholinesterase activity (A.L da Silva et al., 2008), as well as anti-inflammatory effects (Lupeol) (T. Geetha et al., 1999) (Yan Liu et al., 2015). All of these properties demonstrated by Ptychopetalum olacoides have direct therapeutic influence over many of the causative factors of various neurodegenerative disorders. Less directly, P. olacoides well studied effects on the prevention and treatment of both acute and chronic stress deserve merit in the prevention and treatment of neurological disorders due to the causative factor of oxidative damage in the brain. (A.L Patio 2008/2009/2010).
The constituents responsible for P. olacoides anti-acetylcholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity is the triterpene Lupeol, (M. Rasool et al., 2014). A-pinene, and B-pinene are considered to have anti-acetylcholinesterase activity as well (G. Oboh et al., 2014).
May promote hypertension if taken for long periods of time due to its stimulating effects on the central nervous system, although few studies if any have been conducted to investigate this possibility. Consult medical professional if taking Ptychopetalum spp. with high blood pressure.
May cause insomnia due to its stimulating effects. This may be avoided by taking a day off every 2-3 days during long term use, however, there is little evidence of this side effect in the scientific literature as well.
Avoid consuming with excessive amounts of caffeine due to possible insomnia side effects.
Traditional Chinese Medicine:
Not commonly used, however some non-peer reviewed articles indicate that its actions are warming in nature, and enters the triple burner meridian. It is thought by some to regulate both yin and yang in the triple burner, and is used as a circulation tonic.
Due to Muira puamas effects on libido, it may have some effect on the kidney meridian as well, however more professional opinion is needed on this information.
Traditional use of this plant commonly used Catuaba (various species) alongside this plant for a wide range of ailments (Leslie Taylor, ND, 2005). A formula called Catuama® containing Ptychopetalum olacoides, Trichilia catigua, Paullinia cupana, and Zingiber officinalis, has been through numerous scientific peer reviewed studies showing synergy between the botanicals in this formula (V. Pontieri et al. 2007). Some sources report Catuama actually uses the Croton echinoides species instead of Ptychopetalum olacoides. The author has so far been unsuccessful in finding lab analysis of this preparation to confirm.
Possible synergy with Smilax species due to the absorption aiding qualities of Smilax spp.
Spiperone shows synergy through 5HT antagonism and acetylcholinesterase inhibition (A.L da Silva et al. 2008). Other possible synergistic botanicals with a lot of suggested synergy from various web related sources without sufficient scientific evidence include Ginkgo biloba, Glycyrrhiza glabra, and Cucurbita spp. seeds.
Products Containing Muira Puama:
The Sunlight Experiment
Updated: July 2017
Recent Blog Posts:
- A.L da Silva, J.G Ferreira, B. da Silva Martins, S. Oliveira, N. Mai, D.S Nunes, E. Elisaetsky. (2008). Serotonin receptors contribute to the promnesic effects of P. olacoides (Marapuama). Physiology and behaviour. 95. 88-92. Retrieved from the web.
- E. Antunes, W. M. Gordo, J. F. de Oliveira, C. E. Teixeira, S. hyslop, and G. De Nucci. (2001). The relaxation of isolated rabbit Corpus Cavernosum by the Herbal Medicine Catuama® and its Constituents. Phytotherapy research. 15. 416-421. Doi: 10.1002/ptr.861 retrieved from the web.
- I.R Siquieira, C.Fochesatto, I.L.S Torres, A.L da Silva, D.S Nunes, E. Elisabetsky, C.A Netto. (2007) Antioxidant activities of Ptychopetalum olacoides (“muirapuama”) in mice brain. Pytomedicine. 14. 763-769. Retrieved from the web.
- A.L Da Silva, Barbara Da Silva Martins, Viviane De Moura Linck, Anna Paula Hermann, N thalia Mai, Domingos S Nunes, Elaine Elisabetsky. (2009). MK801 - and scopolamine induced amnesias are reversed by an Amazonian herbal locally used as a "brain tonic". Psychopharmacology. 202. 165-172. Doi: 10.1007/s00213-008-1272-y Retrieved from the web.
- A.L Da Silva, S. Bardini, D.S Nunes, and E. Elisabetsky. (2002). Anxiogenic properties of Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth.(Marapuama). Phytotherapy Research. 16. 223-236. Doi: 10.1002/ptr.825 Retrieved from web.
- A.L Piato, B.C Detanico, V.M Linck, A.P Hermann, D.S Nunes, E. Elisabetsky. (2010). Antistress effects of the "Tonic" Ptychopetalum olacoides (Marapuama) in mice. Phytomedicine. 17. 248-253. Retrieved from web.
- Amanda A. Oliveira, Jorge FO Segovia, Vespasiano YK Sousa, Elida CG Mata, Magda CA Goncalves, Roberto M Bezerra, Paulo OM Junior, and Luis IB Kanzaki (2013). Antimicrobial activity of amazonian medicinal pants. SpringerPlus. 2:371. doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-2-371
- Angelo L. Piato, Lucas P. Rizon, Barbara S. Martins, Domingos S. Nunes and Elaine Elisabetsky. (2009). Antidepressant profile of Ptychopetalum olacoides Bentham (Marapuama) in mice. Phytotherapy Research. 23. 519-524. Retrieved from web.
- Fulvio Rieli Mendes, Elisaldo A. Carlini. (2007) Brazilian plants as possible adaptogens: An ethnopharmacological survey of books edited in Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 109. 493-500. Retrieved from the web.
- G. Oboh, T.A. Olasehinde, Ayokunle O. Ademosun. (2014). Essential oil from lemon peels exhibit key enzymes linked to neurodegenerative conditions and pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation. Journal of Oleo Science. 63(4). 373-381. Retrieved from the web.
- Leslie Taylor, ND, (2005), The Healing Power Of Rainforest Herbs, Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, inc.
- Librado A Santiago, Anna Beatriz R Mayor. (2014) Lupeol: An antioxidant triterpene in Ficus pseudpalma Blanco (Moraceae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 4(2) 109-118. doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(14)60218-5
- M. Rasool, A. Malik, M.S Qureshi, A. Manan, P.N Pushparaj, M. Asif, M.H. Qazi, A.M. Qazi, M.A. Kamal, S.H. Gan, I.A. Sheik. (2014). Recent updates in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using natural compounds. Evidence based complementary and alternative medicine. Vol 2014. Article 979730. Retrieved from the web.
- Rohinton S. Tarapore, Imtiaz A. Siddiqui, Vaqar M. Adhami, Vladimir S. Speigelman, and Hasan Mukhtar. (2013). The dietary terpene Lupeol targets colorectal cancer cells with constitutively active Wnt/b-catenin signaling. Mol nutr food res. 57(11). Doi: 10.1002/ mnfr.201300155.
- T. Geetha, P. Varalakshmi. (1999). Effect of Lupeol and Lupeol linoleate on lysosomal enzymes and collagen in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 201. 83-87. Retrieved from the web.
- Vera Pontieri, BSc, Augusto Scalabrini Neto, PhD, MD, Andre Ferrari deFrança Camargo, MD, Marcia Kiyomi Koike, PhD, BSc, Irineu Tadeu Velasco, PhD, MD. (2007). The herbal drug Catuama® reverts and prevents ventricular fibrillation in the isolated rabbit heart. Journal of Electrocardiology. 40. 534.el - 534.e8. Retrieved from the web.
- Yan Liu, Tingting Bi, Gang Wang, Wei Dai, Guolang Wu, Liqiang Qian, Quangen Gao, Genhai Shen. (2015). Lupeol inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of human pancreatic cancer PCNA-1 cells through AKT/ERK pathways. Naunyn-Schmeidebergs Arch Pharmacol. 388. 295-304. Retrieved from the web.
- Novello, C. R., Marques, L. C., Pires, M. E., Kutschenco, A. P., Nakamura, C. V., Nocchi, S., ... & Mello, J. C. (2016). Bioactive Indole Alkaloids from Croton echioides. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 27(12), 2203-2209. Link.