Pau D'Arco Summary:

Pau D'Arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa) is a massive canopy tree of the Amazon rainforest. Its inner bark and heartwood are used as medicine.

The benefits of Pau D'Arco include antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-parasitic, and antiviral. Recent studies have shown that although Pau D'arco possesses all of these actions, its strongest actions are against fungal infection. As such, Pau D'arco is very useful against candida infections. It's been shown to be effective against several strains of candida. This is a great herb to include in a candida diet for moderate to severe candida infections. 

There have been a lot of studies recently on Pau D'arcos effects on combatting cancer. The constituent held most responsible for this action, lupeol, has been the subject of a large number of studies, several of which are listed below in the medical research sections. 

The genus Tabebuia is often used as a decorative tree in many South American countries due to its beautiful flowers. Once a year they explode in a blast of color.

Pau D'arco tea, or tincture is generally the preferred methods of taking this Amazonian herb, although capsules are also available.


Botanical Name

Tabebuia impetiginosa
Tabebuia avellanedae

Family

Bignoniaceae

Part Used

Bark, heartwood

Herbal Actions:

  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Antiviral
  • Anti-leukemia
  • Anodyne
  • Antinflammatory
  • Antiparasitic
  • Antioxidant
  • Blood thinner
  • Laxitive (mild)
  • Antirheumatic
  • Dries secretions
  • Antipsoriatic
  • Antinociceptive
  • Antidepressant
pau d'arco tree pink flowers

Dosage

Decoction

125-250 ml 2-4 times/day

Tincture (1:5)

4-9 ml/day

Tablets/Capsules

Not recommended

Topical/Douche

Make a decoction, let it cool, and apply once/day for 3-5 days.

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Indications:

  • Edema
  • Cancer
  • Infections (fungal, bacterial, viral)
  • Inflammation
  • Pain
  • Parasites
  • Candida infection
  • As an antioxidant
  • Immune supportive
  • Rheumatic pain
  • Depression
  • Psoriasis
  • Impetigo
*Also useful addition to detoxes and cleanses (especially candida). Can be decocted, allowed to cool, and used as a douche to treat yeast infections (once per day for 3-5 days), or topically on the skin for fungal infections such as athlete's foot.  
 

Recommended Sources:

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Pau D'Arco Liquid Extract

Herb Pharm

(Made from Tabebuia impetiginosa)

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Pau D'Arco Bark

Starwest Botanicals

(Made from Tabebuia impetiginosa)

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Pau D'Arco Capsules

Natures Way

Tablets

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Common Names:

  • Pau D'arco
  • Ipê
  • Ipê roxo
  • Lapacho
  • Tahuari
  • Taheebo
  • Trumpalumpagusalumpaguset tree
  • Ipê-contrasarna
  • Tabebuia ipê
  • Tajy

Traditional Uses:

Indications of Tabebuia use, imply it has been used since before the incas (Taylor L. 2005). As with many of the Amazonian herbs, tribes from all over the rainforest with little or no connection with each other have used this herb for much the same purposes and preparations for hundreds of years (Taylor L. 2005).

The wood of Tabebuia has been used for centuries to make strong bows for hunting (Taylor L. 2005).

Tabebuia has been reportedly used in various South American medical systems for such conditions as ulcers, syphilis, urinary tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, candidiasis, cancer, diabetes, prostatitis, constipation, rheumatism, arthritis, dysentery, stomatitis, boils, and allergies (Taylor L. 2005). Colombians have reportedly used a bark infusion as a CNS stimulant, and a decoction by the Bahamians was employed for a similar reason as an energizing tonic to give strength (A. E. Freitas et al., 2013). In Brazil, T. avellanedae bark infusion is used to treat malaria, cancer, fever, stomach disorders, bacterial and fungal infections, and to relieve a variety of mental, and emotional states (anxiety, poor memory, irritability, and depression) (A. E. Freitas et al., 2013).



Botanical Description:

Pau D'arco is a massive tree found in the Amazon rainforest, as well as other parts of tropical South and Central America. This tree grows to heights of about 30 meters with base diameter of about 1.5-3 meters.

The Tabebuia genus is known for its beautiful, vibrant flowers, and is often used in landscaping in South American cities and homes. Various species of Tabebuia produce different colored flowers. As a genus, Tabebuia contains about 100 species (F. J. Jiménez-González et al., 2013; Taylor L. 2005). The wood is also often used, providing heavy, durable, high quality timber for anything from construction, to tools (Taylor L. 2005).

Much of the early research on Tabebuia was fuelled by its reported anti cancer qualities throughout the 1960s (Taylor L. 2005). Some of these studies showing evidence that Tabebuia provided a positive effect against Tumors, eventually drew the attention of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), which in turn backed more research in this area (Taylor L. 2005). The issue however was that the NCI was testing single plant extracts (such as lapachol), rather than the whole plant extract, and reported that they were unable to produce therapeutic effects without side effects and discontinued research shortly afterwards. As Taylor L, (2005) points out, the side effects (nausea, vomiting, and anti-vitamin K activity) are very similar to current chemotherapy medication side effects. She also points out that there have been other chemicals discovered in Tabebuia that produce positive effects on vitamin K, and may in fact neutralize the negative effects lapachol may have on vitamin K activity.

Much of the Tabebuia on the market today are considered a by-product of the lumber industry, which accounts for some of the confusion and contradiction in medicinal use of this plant. As it arrives at the lumber mill, many of the distinguishing features showing which species of Tabebuia it is, are missing at this point and is considered just "Pau D'arco " (Taylor L. 2005). Unfortunately it has also been reported that the mahogany shavings found on the floors of the lumber mills (which produce a similar texture, odour, and color to true Tabebuia impetiginosa/avellanedae) are often swept up and packaged as Pau D'arco as well (Taylor L. 2005). This is evident after a study conducting chemical analysis of 12 commercially available Pau D'arco products, found only one of those products actually contained lapachol, which itself was in trace amounts compared to the documented concentration of 2-7% in true Pau D'arco (Taylor L. 2005).


Habitat, Ecology, Distribution:

The Tabebuia genus is found throughout the Amazon rainforest as well as other parts of South America (Taylor L. 2005). This genus has a strong presence in the highly diverse and vibrant canopy of the Amazon rainforest.

The Amazon rainforest habitat

Harvesting, Collection, Preparation:

Tabebuia is harvested from the rainforest as lumber, and sent off to processing factories to be cut up into useable pieces. It is here that Tabebuia is identified as "Pau D'arco " (despite large differences in constituent levels between various Tabebuia species), and the inner bark is stripped off and sold on the herbal market. The heartwood is then cut into timber and used for various uses. The fact has been well documented through laboratory analysis that the heartwood contains the highest concentrations of lapachol, and this is what most of the scientific research has focused on (Taylor L. 2005), thus a conflict is born. Taylor L. (2005) also notes that a good quality Pau D'arco (Tabebuia impetiginosa) will contain about 4% lapachol.

The quinoids contained within Tabebuia are not very water soluble, and must be boiled for at least. 10-15 minutes to be extracted in any sort of therapeutic amount (Taylor L. 2005). Therefore a simple infusion will not extract the constituents that are most sought after. To best use Pau D'Arco, a decoction, or hydroalcoholic extract is best.


Constituents:

Taylor L. (2005) lists the main plant chemicals in Pau D'arco as: acetaldehydes, alpha-lapachone, ajugols, anisic acid, anthraquinones, benzoic acids, benzenes, beta-lapachone, carboxaldehydes, chromium, chrysanthemin, dehydro-alpha-lapachone, dehydroisolapachone, deoxylapachol, flavonoids,furanonaphthoquinones, hydrochlorolapachol, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-quinone, 6-hydroxy-mellein, iso-8-hydroxy-lariciresinol, kigelinone, lapachenol, lapachenole, lapachol, lapachones, menaquinones, 4-methoxyphenol, naphthoquinones, paeonidin-3-cinnamyl-sophoroside, phthiolol, quercetin, tabebuin, tectoquinone, vanillic acid, vanillin, veratric acid, veratric aldehyde, and xyloidone.

The bark contains furanonapthoquinones, quinines, napthoquinones, benzoic acid, benzaldehyde derivatives, cyclopentene dialdehyde, flavonoids, iridoid glycosides, lignan glycosides, isocoumarin glycosides, phenylethanoid glycosides, lapachol, beta-lapachone (N.C de Sousa et al., 2009).


Pharmacology and Medical Research:

 

ANTIBACTERIAL

Tabebuia spp. (T. ochracea, T. rosea, T. impetiginosa, T. avellanedae) has clearly demonstrated broad spectrum actions against a number of disease causing microorganisms including bacteria such as various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Helicobacter pylori, Brucella, and Bacillus subtilis. These effects are suggested to be through the various naphthoquinones contained in the bark. (F. J. Jiménez-González et al., 2013; Taylor L. 2005).

Various leaf extracts (from T. rosea, T. chrysantha) were also shown to inhibit bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, these results were associated with its phenolic constituents  (F. J. Jiménez-González et al., 2013).

No extract of Tabebuia spp. were found to produce effective antibacterial effects against E. coli  (F. J. Jiménez-González et al., 2013).

 

ANTI CANCER

Some (National Cancer Institute) NCI funded studies in the late 1960s looking into lapachols effects on cancer, reported that they were unable to produce therapeutic effects without such side effects as nausea, vomiting, and anti-vitamin K activity (vitamin K is necessary for bone health, among other things). These effects are similar to side effects noted in modern chemotherapy. What the NCI failed to realize is that by testing lapachol by itself, it was missing some of the possible synergistic chemicals also found within Tabebuia, some of which providing positive effects on vitamin K activity. These chemicals may be the reason some other studies looking at the whole plant extract have reported little or no side effects, while also providing evidence for significant anti cancer properties. Nevertheless, lapachol has been found to produce anticancer effects in vivo, and in vitro, . Taylor L. (2005) refers a study done in 1980 on lapachols effect on 9 human patients with various cancers (liver, kidney, breast, prostate, cervix). This study reported that pure lapachol was able to shrink tumors, and reduce pain caused by them, with 3 of these patients attaining complete remission.

Other quinones contained in Tabebuia including beta-lapachone were reported to provide significant anticancer activity as well (Taylor L. 2005). Beta-lapachone was reported to provide support for cancers such as promyelocytic leukaemia, prostate, malignant glioma, colon, hepatoma, breast, ovarian, pancreatic, multiple myeloma cell lines, and drug resistant cell lines (Taylor L. 2005). The mechanism of action from this constituent has been suggested to be inhibition of IDO1 (this means it works best on cancer cell lines that rely on this enzyme to stay intact) (H. E. Flick et al., 2013)

N.C de Sousa et al, (2009), reports that the naphthoquinones found in T. avellanedae showed potent cytotoxicity against several cancer cell lines, and lower toxicity against certain normal human cell lines than the drug mitomycin. The synthetic version of beta-lapachone has showed similar results but with more side effects.

 

ANTIDEPRESSANT

A. E. Freitas et al, (2013) determined that the caffeic acid contained in T. avellanedae, produced both antioxidant effects, and antidepressant effects. These effects on depressive states were noted to be through the modulation of NMDA (N-methyl- D-aspartate) receptors.

 

ANTIFUNGAL

Pau D'arco (Tabebuia spp.) has provided clear evidence in vitro against fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cryptococcus neoformans, Microsporum gypseum, Penicillium purpurogenum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (F. J. Jiménez-González et al., 2013; Taylor L. 2005).

More specifically, in terms of Candida, Tabebuia avellanedae was shown to produce inhibitory effects against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida utilis, Candida krusei, Candida lusitaniae, Candida glabrata and Candida rugosa (F. J. Jiménez-González et al., 2013).

 

ANTI INFLAMMATORY

Beta-lapachone has been shown to produce anti inflammatory effects, through modulation of various inflammatory molecules (inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cytokine expressions, and MMPs), and multiple signaling pathways, and has been suggested as a preventative therapeutic agent in disease associated with neuroinflammation (E.J Lee et al., 2015).

 

ANTINOCICEPTIVE

T. avellanedae aqueous extract was found to possess antinociceptive, as well as antiedemotagenic effects in rats and the mechanism of action was associated with the adenosine system (F.G.G de Miranda et al., 2001). These results validate some of its traditional uses such as analgesic, and antinflammatory applications.

 

ANTIOXIDANT

6 phenylpropanoid glycosides were discovered in the aqueous extract of T. avellanedae, and these were suggested to provide strong antioxidant, as well as moderate inhibition of CYP3A4 enzyme (M. Suo et al., 2013).

 

ANTIPARASITIC

Pau D'arco has demonstrated an activity against such parasites as malaria, schistosoma, trypanosoma (Taylor L. 2005).

Lapachol has been noted to produce low activity against Plasmodium berghei in mice and Plasmodium falciparum in vitro, and a higher activity against parasites such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania infantum (F. J. Jiménez-González et al., 2013).

 

ANTI PSORIATIC

Due to the activity contained in Tabebuia, against the growth of human keratinocytes, Tabebuia is suggested to provide anti psoriatic effects (Taylor L. 2005).

 

ANTIVIRAL

Various constituents contained within tabebuia have demonstrated properties in vitro against viruses including herpes I and II, influenza, polio virus, and vesicular stomatitis virus (Taylor L. 2005). Other studies have noted a lack of research in this area, with a few studies showing minor to no antiviral activity (F. J. Jiménez-González et al., 2013).

 

Toxicity

Due to lack of information found both traditionally, and in the scientific literature, on the use of this herbal during pregnancy, its use should be used cautiously, or avoided altogether during pregnancy until more information is gained on this interaction.

High doses of decoction (more than 250 ml at a time), have reportedly produced some gastrointestinal upset in some individuals. 

 

Synergy:

The anticancer effects of lapachone are noted to be through noncompetitive inhibition of IDO1 (H. E. Flick et al., 2013), among other mechanisms, and likely have synergy in this action with other botanicals. More research is needed however. Other constituents are noted to combat  some of the negative side effects resulting from chemotherapy such as vitamin K support. These effects need to be explored further to understand how this may be used to combat the negative side effects felt with chemotherapy.

Harmonic Arts Botanical Dispensary

Author:

Justin Cooke

The Sunlight Experiment

Updated: March 2017


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References:         

  1. Andiara E. Freitas, Morgana Moretti, Josiane Budni, Grasiela O. Balen, Sinara C. Fernandes, Patricia O. Veronezi, Melina Heller, Gustavo A. Micke, Moacir G. Pizzolatti, and Ana Lucia S. Rodrigues. (2013). NMDA Receptors and the L-Arginine–Nitric Oxide–Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Pathway Are Implicated in the Antidepressant-Like Action of the Ethanolic Extract from Tabebuia avellanedae in Mice. Journal of Medicinal Food. vol. 16. 11. 1030-1038.    
  2. Eun-Jung Lee, Hyun-Myung Ko, Yeon-Hui Jeong, Eun-Mi Park, and Hee-Sun Kim. (2015). β-Lapachone suppresses neuroinflammation by modulating the expression of cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases in activated microglia. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 12:33.
  3. Fábio Guilherme Gonçalves de Miranda, Jeane Carvalho Vilar, Ivana Andréa Nunes Alves, Sócrates Cabral de Holanda Cavalcanti and Ângelo Roberto Antoniolli. (2011). Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic properties and acute toxicity of Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. inner bark aqueous extract. BMC Pharmacology. 1. 6.
  4. Francisco Javier Jiménez-González, Luz Angela Veloza, Juan Carlos Sepúlveda-Arias. (2013). Anti-infectious activity in plants of the genus Tabebuia. Univ. Sci. Vol 18. 3. 257-267. doi: 10.11144/Javeriana.SC18-3.aapg
  5. Hollie E. Flick, Judith M. LaLonde, William P. Malachowski and Alexander J. Muller. (2013). The Tumor-selective cytotoxic Agent β-Lapachone is a potent Inhibitor of IDO1. International Journal of Tryptophan Research. 6 35–45. doi: 10.4137/IJTR.S12094
  6. Maorong Suo, Tomihisa Ohta, Fumihide Takano, and Shouwen Jin. (2013). Bioactive Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from Tabebuia avellanedae. Molecules 2013. 18. 7336-7345. doi:10.3390/molecules18077336
  7. Taylor, L. (2005). The healing power of rainforest herbs: A guide to understanding and using herbal medicinals. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers.